(1/446) The excretion of ibuprofen by the horse - a preliminary report.
The anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen [(+/-)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid] was estimated in the blood and urine of a horse using gas-liquid chromatography of the silylated derivative. Levels of the drug in the two body fluids were measured over a period of about 24 hours after administering a 12 gm dose of Ibuprofen. Plasma peak levels were observed within 30 to 60 min, and the drug was no longer detectable in the plasma by 8 hr. Urinary peak levels were observed 200 to 300 min after dosing, and the drug was no longer detectable in the urine by about 28 hr. It was observed that only 2% to 6% of the free unchanged drug was excreted in the urine. (+info)
(2/446) Maintenance of blood pressure in normotensive dogs by endothelin.
The role of endothelin (ET)-1 in blood pressure homeostasis and the interaction with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was investigated in normotensive conscious dogs. ETA receptors were blocked by LU-135252 (1-30 mg/kg); trandolapril (2 mg/kg) or losartan (10 mg/kg) was used to inhibit the RAS. LU-135252 in oral doses of 3-30 mg/kg significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) by approximately 10 mmHg maximally, whereas trandolapril or losartan were without any effect. MAP reduction was more pronounced when LU-135252 was combined with either losartan (-15.5 +/- 3.2 mmHg; 2 h postadministration; P < 0.05) or trandolapril (-30.9 +/- 3.6 mmHg; P < 0.05). When endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation was blocked but NO concomitantly infused, this synergistic effect on MAP was prevented. The data show that ET-1 contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure via ETA receptors. Furthermore, ET-1 and ANG II play a prominent role in the control of blood pressure by opposing the effects of NO. The pronounced blood pressure fall after combined blockade of ETA receptors and the RAS may be mediated by an enhanced release of NO. (+info)
(3/446) Contribution of endothelin to renal vascular tone and autoregulation in the conscious dog.
Exogenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a strong vasoconstrictor in the canine kidney and causes a decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) by stimulating the ETA receptor subtype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endogenously generated ET-1 in renal hemodynamics under physiological conditions. In six conscious foxhounds, the time course of the effects of the selective ETA receptor antagonist LU-135252 (10 mg/kg iv) on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), RBF, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as well as its effects on renal autoregulation, were examined. LU-135252 increased RBF by 20% (from 270 +/- 21 to 323 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.05) and HR from 76 +/- 5 to 97 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0. 05), but did not alter MAP, GFR, or autoregulation of RBF and GFR. Since a number of interactions between ET-1 and the renin-angiotensin system have been reported previously, experiments were repeated during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by trandolaprilat (2 mg/kg iv). When ETA receptor blockade was combined with ACE inhibition, which by itself had no effects on renal hemodynamics, marked changes were observed: MAP decreased from 91 +/- 4 to 80 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05), HR increased from 85 +/- 5 to 102 +/- 11 beats/min (P < 0.05), and RBF increased from 278 +/- 23 to 412 +/- 45 ml/min (P < 0.05). Despite a pronounced decrease in renal vascular resistance over the entire pressure range investigated (40-100 mmHg), the capacity of the kidneys to autoregulate RBF was not impaired. The GFR remained completely unaffected at all pressure levels. These results demonstrate that endogenously generated ET-1 contributes significantly to renal vascular tone but does not interfere with the mechanisms of renal autoregulation. If ETA receptors are blocked, then the vasoconstrictor effects of ET-1 in the kidney are compensated for to a large extent by an augmented influence of ANG II. Thus ET-1 and ANG II appear to constitute a major interrelated vasoconstrictor system in the control of RBF. (+info)
(4/446) Chronic ETA receptor blockade attenuates cardiac hypertrophy independently of blood pressure effects in renovascular hypertensive rats.
In isolated cardiac myocytes, the direct effects of angiotensin II on cellular growth and gene expression were shown to be mediated by endothelin via the endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor. To determine whether this pathway is also involved in the cardiovascular adaptations to a chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin system in vivo, the effects of a selective ETA receptor antagonist (LU 127043) were investigated in adult rats with renal artery stenosis. Four groups of rats (n=107) were studied over a period of 10 days after surgery: (1) sham-operated animals with saline administration, (2) rats subjected to left renal artery clipping with saline administration, (3) sham-operated rats with LU 127043 administration, and (4) rats subjected to left renal artery clipping with LU 127043 administration. LU 127043 (50 mg/kg) or saline was given by gavage twice daily starting 1 day before the operation. In clipped rats with saline administration, plasma renin activity, the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight, and mRNAs for beta-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide were significantly elevated as early as 2 days after surgery. Blood pressure started to rise on the third postoperative day and attained a steady state hypertensive level by day 6. Blockade of ETA receptors had no effects on plasma renin activity or the time course of hypertension in clipped animals but completely prevented left ventricular hypertrophy and the re-expression of the beta-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes on day 2. While the expressions of the beta-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes were not different from saline-treated, clipped animals after day 4, the development of left ventricular hypertrophy remained markedly blunted (-50%) during ETA receptor blockade until day 10. These results show that a continuous blockade of ETA receptors significantly attenuates the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and, more transiently, fetal gene expression in the early phase of renovascular hypertension. Since neither blood pressure nor the increase in plasma renin activity was significantly altered by ETA receptor blockade, the inhibitory influences of the ETA receptor antagonist on left ventricular hypertrophy and gene expression were mediated most likely through a direct blockade of myocardial ETA receptors. (+info)
(5/446) The leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist ONO-4057 inhibits nephrotoxic serum nephritis in WKY rats.
To evaluate the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in glomerulonephritis, this study was conducted to examine whether ONO-4057, an LTB4 receptor antagonist, moderated nephritis caused by the injection of nephrotoxic serum (NTS) into Wistar-Kyoto rats. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of ONO-4057 or phosphate-buffered saline 24 h before the injection of NTS. These rats subsequently received equal doses of ONO-4057 or phosphate-buffered saline 3 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 d later. Compared with the control groups, ONO-4057 treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and hematuria, suppressed the glomerular accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, and reduced the formation of crescentic glomeruli in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that LTB4 is responsible for the crescentic formations and renal dysfunction associated with NTS nephritis. The LTB4 receptor antagonist ONO-4057 may thus be beneficial in the treatment of crescentic glomerulonephritis. (+info)
(6/446) The ET(A) receptor blocker LU 135252 prevents chronic transplant nephropathy in the "Fisher to Lewis" model.
The effect of the orally highly bioavailable and specific endothelin A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist LU 135252 was assessed in a model of chronic renal allograft nephropathy. Kidneys of Fisher rats were orthotopically grafted to Lewis rats. Fisher autografts and kidneys after uninephrectomy served as controls. All animals received low-dose cyclosporin A (CsA; 1.5 mg/kg body wt) for 10 d after surgery. Allotransplanted animals were then randomized to receive standard diet or a diet designed to deliver 30 mg of LU 135252/kg body wt per d for 35 wk. BP was monitored telemetrically. Treatment with LU 135252 did not affect systolic or diastolic pressure. Indices of glomerulosclerosis (GSI), and tubulointerstitial and vascular damage were measured. Chronic transplant nephropathy was almost completely prevented by LU 135252 compared with untreated allografts or kidneys of uninephrectomized controls, i.e., GSI 0.7 +/- 0.12 versus 1.6 +/- 0.25 (P < 0.001) versus 0.7 +/- 0.06 (P < 0.001). Allograft weight and serum creatinine were significantly lower in treated versus untreated animals. The results are consistent with the notion that ET(A) receptor-mediated events play a role in the genesis of chronic transplant nephropathy. (+info)
(7/446) Colonic ulceration caused by administration of loxoprofen sodium.
A 54-year-old female with chronic headache was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia. She had routinely taken loxoprofen sodium because of severe headache. Emergent colonoscopic examination revealed ulceration of the cecum. After administration of loxoprofen sodium was discontinued and administration of sulfasalazine was initiated, her intestinal bleeding subsided. Two months after discontinuation of loxoprofen sodium, the colonoscopic examination revealed scar formation at the site of cecal ulceration. In this case, it was conceivable that the administration of loxoprofen sodium might have induced colonic ulceration. (+info)
(8/446) Effect of a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (M-5011) on cytokine levels in rats with monosodium urate crystal- induced pleurisy.
We evaluated the effects of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), d-2-[4-(3-methyl-2-thienyl)phenyl]propionic acid (M-5011), and indomethacin on the production of arachidonate metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokines in male Sprague-Dawley rats with monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced pleurisy. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 in the pleural exudate were determined by biological assays, while prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cytokine-induced chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) levels were quantified by enzyme immunoassays. Orally administered M-5011 (5 mg/kg) decreased the pleural exudate volume at 3 and 4 hr after MSU injection. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) decreased the volume at 3-5 hr. These drugs reduced the number of leukocytes in the pleural cavity at 6 hr. Both NSAIDs also reduced the content of PGE2 in the exudate without affecting LTB4 levels. Increased productions of both IL-6 and CINC-1 in the exudate were reduced by pretreatment with M-5011 or indomethacin, and TNF levels in the exudate were increased by pretreatment of these drugs. Thus, M-5011 inhibits the production of both IL-6 and CINC-1 at lower doses than those of indomethacin, and the inhibitory effect of M-5011 on CINC-1, but not IL-6, may partly contribute to the inhibition of leukocyte infiltration in rats with MSU-induced pleurisy. (+info)