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(1/165) Characterization of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase from Streptomyces purpurascens.

Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase (RdmE) is a FAD monooxygenase participating in the biosynthesis of daunorubicin, doxorubicin and rhodomycins. The rdmE gene encodes an enzyme of 535 amino acids. The sequence of the Streptomyces purpurascens enzyme is similar to other Streptomyces aromatic polyketide hydroxylases. We overexpressed the gene in Streptomyces lividans and purified aklavinone-11-hydroxylase to apparent homogeneity with four chromatographic steps utilizing a kinetic photometric enzyme assay. The enzyme is active as the monomer with a molecular mass of 60 kDa; it hydroxylates aklavinone and other anthracyclinones. Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase can use both NADH and NADPH as coenzyme but it is slowly inactivated in the presence of NADH. The apparent Km for NADPH is 2 mM and for aklavinone 10 microM. The enzyme is inactivated in the presence of phenylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione. NADPH protects against inactivation of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase by phenylglyoxal.  (+info)

(2/165) Chemical modification of lysine and arginine residues of bovine heart 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase: effect on the enzyme activity and regulation.

Chemical modification of arginine and lysine residues of bovine heart 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase with phenylglyoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate inactivated the enzyme, indicating the importance of these residues for the catalysis. Inactivation caused by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was prevented in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg2+ allowing the assumption that lysine residues participate in binding of the cofactor.  (+info)

(3/165) Essential arginine residues in maize starch synthase IIa are involved in both ADP-glucose and primer binding.

The arginine-specific reagent phenylglyoxal inactivated the activity of maize starch synthase IIa (SSIIa), due to the modification of at least one arginine residue out of a possible 42. The addition of ADPGlc completely protected SSIIa from the inactivation, indicating that arginine may be involved in the interaction of this anionic substrate with SSIIa. However, site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved Arg-214 in SSIIa showed that this amino acid is important for apparent affinity of SSIIa for its primer (amylopectin and glycogen), as evidenced by a marked increase in the K(m) for primer upon substitution of this amino acid with no concomitant change in V(max), K(m) for ADPGlc, or secondary structure. Therefore, Arg-214 of SSIIa appears to play a role in its primer binding.  (+info)

(4/165) Active site determination of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I expressed in Escherichia coli.

The ram2 and cal1 genes encode the alpha and beta subunits of yeast geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I (GGPT-I), respectively. Arginine 166 of the beta subunit was changed to isoleucine (betaR166I), histidine 216 to aspartic acid (betaH216D), and asparagine 282 to alanine (betaN282A) by sequential PCR using mutagenic primers. The mutants were expressed under the same conditions as the wild-type and were assayed for GGPT-I activity. Wild-type yeast GGPT-I, alphaH145D, alphaD140N, betaR166I, betaH216D and betaN282A mutant GGPT-Is were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by a Q-Sepharose column. Characterization studies were performed using the active fraction of the Q-Sepharose column. In the chemical modification reactions, the catalytic activity of purified enzyme decreased in proportion to the concentration of modifying reagents, such as phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) protected the enzyme activity from the modification with phenylglyoxal. The measurement of GGPP binding to wild-type and five mutant GGPT-Is was performed by a gel-filtration assay. The binding of GGPP to the betaR166I mutant was low and the Km value for GGPP in the betaR166I mutant increased about 29-fold. Therefore, the results suggest a role for this arginine residue that directly influences the GGPP binding. The activity of the DEPC-modified GGPT-I was inhibited by 80% at 5 mM DEPC. The differential absorption at 242 nm may suggest that at this concentration the modified histidine residues were 1.5 mol per GGPT-I. The protein substrate, glutathione S-transferase fused undecapeptide (GST-CAIL) protected the enzyme from inactivation by DEPC, and the Km value for GST-CAIL in the betaH216D mutant increased about 12-fold. The trypsin digestion of [14C]DEPC-modified enzyme yielded a single radioactive peptide. As a result of the sequence of this radioactive peptide, the histidine 216 residue was assumed to be an essential part of binding of peptide substrate.  (+info)

(5/165) Pearl millet cysteine protease inhibitor. Evidence for the presence of two distinct sites responsible for anti-fungal and anti-feedent activities.

Recently, pearl millet cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) was, for the first time, shown to possess anti-fungal activity in addition to its anti-feedent (protease inhibitory) activity [Joshi, B.N. et al. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246, 382-387]. Characterization of CPI revealed that it has a reversible mode of action for protease inhibition. The CD spectrum exhibited a 35% alpha helix and 65% random coil structure. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum was typical of a protein devoid of tryptophan residues. Demetallation of Zn2+ resulted in a substantial change in the secondary and tertiary structure of CPI accompanied by the complete loss of anti-fungal and inhibitory activity indicating that Zn2+ plays an important role in maintaining both structural integrity and biological function. The differential response of anti-fungal and inhibitory activities to specific modifiers showed that there are two different reactive sites associated with anti-fungal and anti-feedent activity in CPI located on a single protein as revealed from its N-terminal sequence data (AGVCYGVLGNNLP). Modification of cysteine, glutamic/aspartic acid or argnine resulted in abolition of the anti-fungal activity of CPI, whereas modification of arginine led to an enhancement of the inhibitory activity in solution. Modification of histidine resulted in a twofold increase in the protease inhibitory activity without affecting the anti-fungal activity, whereas modification of serine led to selective inhibition of the protease inhibitory activity. The differential nature of the two activities was further supported by differences in the temperature stabilities of the anti-fungal (60 degrees C) and inhibitory (40 degrees C) activities. Binding of papain to CPI did not abolish the anti-fungal activity of CPI, supporting the presence of two active sites on CPI. The differential behavior of CPI towards anti-fungal and anti-feedent activity cannot be attributed to changes in conformation, as assessed by their CD and fluorescence spectra. The interaction of CPI modified for arginine or histidine with papain resulted in an enhancement of CPI activity accompanied by a slight decrease in fluorescence intensity of 15-20% at 343 nm. In contrast, modification of serine resulted in inhibition of CPI activity with a concomitant increase of 20% in the fluorescence intensity when complexed by the enzyme. This implies the involvement of enzyme-based tryptophan in the formation of a biologically active enzyme-inhibitor complex. The presence of anti-fungal and anti-feedent activity on a single protein, as evidenced in pearl millet CPI, opens up a new possibility of raising a transgenic plant resistant to pathogens, as well as pests, by transfer of a single CPI gene.  (+info)

(6/165) Chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis of conserved HXXH and PP-loop motif arginines and histidines in the murine bifunctional ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase.

The sulfurylase domain of the mouse bifunctional enzyme ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase contains HXXH and PP-loop motifs. To elucidate the functional importance of these motifs and of conserved arginines and histidines, chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis studies were performed. Chemical modification of arginines and histidines with phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate, respectively, renders the enzyme inactive in sulfurylase, kinase, and overall assays. Data base searches and sequence comparison of bifunctional ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase and monofunctional ATP sulfurylases shows a limited number of highly conserved arginines and histidines within the sulfurylase domain. Of these conserved residues, His-425, His-428, and Arg-421 are present within or near the HXXH motif whereas His-506, Arg-510, and Arg-522 residues are present in and around the PP-loop. The functional role of these conserved residues was further studied by site-directed mutagenesis. In the HXXH motif, none of the alanine mutants (H425A, H428A, and R421A) had sulfurylase or overall activity, whereas they all exhibited normal kinase activity. A slight improvement in reverse sulfurylase activity (<10% residual activity) and complete restoration of forward sulfurylase was observed with R421K. Mutants designed to probe the PP-loop requirements included H506A, R510A, R522A, R522K, and D523A. Of these, R510A exhibited normal sulfurylase and kinase activity, R522A and R522K showed no sulfurylase activity, and H506A had normal sulfurylase activity but produced an effect on kinase activity (<10% residual activity). The single aspartate, D523A, which is part of the highly conserved GRD sequence of the PP-loop, affected both sulfurylase and kinase activity. This mutational analysis indicates that the HXXH motif plays a role only in the sulfurylase activity, whereas the PP-loop is involved in both sulfurylase and kinase activities. Residues specific for sulfurylase activity have also been distinguished from those involved in kinase activity.  (+info)

(7/165) A conserved seven amino acid stretch important for murine mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. Significance of arginine 318 in catalysis.

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the initial and committed step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. We previously cloned the cDNA sequence to murine mitochondrial GPAT (Yet, S-F., Lee, S., Hahm, Y. T., and Sul, H.S. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 9486-9491). We expressed the protein in insect cells which was targeted to mitochondria, purified, and reconstituted mitochondrial GPAT activity using phospholipids (Yet, S.-F., Moon, Y., and Sul, H. S. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 7303-7310). Deletion of the seven amino acids from mitochondrial GPAT, (312)IFLEGTR(318), which is highly conserved among acyltransferases in glycerolipid biosynthesis, drastically reduced mitochondrial GPAT activity. Treatment of mitochondrial GPAT with arginine-modifying agents, phenylglyoxal and cyclohexanedione, inactivated the enzyme. Two highly conserved arginine residues, Arg-318, in the seven amino stretch, and Arg-278, were identified. Substitution of Arg-318 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine reduced the mitochondrial GPAT activity by over 90%. On the other hand, although substitution of Arg-278 with alanine and histidine decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity by 90%, replacement with lysine reduced activity by only 25%. A substitution of the nonconserved Arg-279 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine did not alter mitochondrial GPAT activity. Moreover, R278K mitochondrial GPAT still showed sensitivity to arginine-modifying agents, as in the case of wild-type mitochondrial GPAT. These results suggest that Arg-318 may be critical for mitochondrial GPAT activity, whereas Arg-278 can be replaced by a basic amino acid. Examination of the other conserved residues in the seven amino acid stretch revealed that Phe-313 and Glu-315 are also important, but conservative substitutions can partially maintain activity; substitution with alanine reduced activity by 83 and 72%, respectively, whereas substituting Phe-313 with tyrosine and Glu-315 with glutamine had even lesser effect. In addition, there was no change in fatty acyl-CoA selectivity. Kinetic analysis of the R318K and R318A mitochondrial GPAT showed an 89 and 95%, respectively, decrease in catalytic efficiency but no major change in substrate binding as indicated by the K(m) values for palmitoyl-CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate. These studies indicate importance of the conserved seven amino acid stretch for mitochondrial GPAT activity and the significance of Arg-318 for catalysis.  (+info)

(8/165) Enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The product of the LPP1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the Mg(2+)-independent dephosphorylation of phosphatidate (PA), diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), and lysophosphatidate (LPA). The LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase was overexpressed 681-fold in Sf-9 insect cells and used to examine the enzymological properties of the enzyme using PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates. The optimum pH values for PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities were 7. 5, 7.0, and 7.0, respectively. Divalent cations (Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ca(2+)), NaF, heavy metals, propranolol, phenylglyoxal, and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities of the enzyme. The inhibitory effects of N-ethylmaleimide and phenylglyoxal on the LPP1-encoded enzyme were novel properties when compared with other Mg(2+)-independent lipid phosphate phosphatases from S. cerevisiae and mammalian cells. The LPP1-encoded enzyme exhibited saturation kinetics with respect to the surface concentrations of PA (K(m)=0.05 mol%), DGPP (K(m)=0.07 mol%), and LPA (K(m)=0.08 mol%). Based on specificity constants (V(max)/K(m)LPA (1.3 units/mg/mol%). DGPP (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to PA, and PA (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to DGPP. This suggested that the binding sites for these substrates were the same. The enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded enzyme differed significantly from those of the S. cerevisiae DPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase, a related enzyme that also utilizes PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates.  (+info)