Retigabine N-glucuronidation and its potential role in enterohepatic circulation.
The metabolism of retigabine in humans and dogs is dominated by N-glucuronidation (), whereas in rats, a multitude of metabolites of this new anticonvulsant is observed (). The comparison of the in vivo and in vitro kinetics of retigabine N-glucuronidation in these species identified a constant ratio between retigabine and retigabine N-glucuronide in vivo in humans and dog. An enterohepatic circulation of retigabine in these species is likely to be the result of reversible glucuronidation-deglucuronidation reactions. Rats did not show such a phenomenon, indicating that enterohepatic circulation of retigabine via retigabine N-glucuronide does not occur in this species. In the rat, 90% of retigabine N-glucuronidation is catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 and UGT1A2, whereas family 2 UGT enzymes contribute also. Of ten recombinant human UGTs, only UGTs 1A1, 1A3, 1A4, and 1A9 catalyzed the N-glucuronidation of retigabine. From the known substrate specificities of UGT1A4 toward lamotrigine and bilirubin and our activity and inhibition data, we conclude that UGT1A4 is a major retigabine N-glucuronosyl transferase in vivo and significantly contributes to the enterohepatic cycling of the drug. (+info)
Metabolism of retigabine (D-23129), a novel anticonvulsant.
Retigabine (D-23129, N-(2-amino-4-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-phenyl) carbamic acid ethyl ester) is a potent anticonvulsant in a variety of animal models. Rats metabolized [14C]retigabine mainly through glucuronidation and acetylation reactions. Glucuronides were detected in incubates with liver microsomes or slices, in plasma, and in bile and feces but were absent in urine (0-24 h) that contained about 2% of the dose as retigabine and approximately 29% of the dose in > 20 metabolites, which are derived mainly from acetylation reactions. About 67% of the radioactivity was excreted into feces, approximately 10% of the dose as glucuronide. The metabolite pattern in the urine (0-24 h) of dogs was comparatively simple in that retigabine (13%), retigabine-N-glucuronide (5%), and retigabine-N-glucoside (1%) were present. In the same 24-h interval, about 39% of unchanged retigabine was excreted into feces. Plasma profiling and spectroscopic analysis (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry NMR) of two isolated urinary metabolites obtained after single oral dosing of 600 mg retigabine in healthy volunteers indicated that both acetylation and glucuronidation are major metabolic pathways of retigabine in humans. We found that in vitro assays with liver slices from rat and humans reveal the major circulating metabolites in vivo. (+info)
N-Acetylation of paraphenylenediamine in human skin and keratinocytes.
Skin is the major target of allergic reactions to paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Such small molecules require activation to become immunogenic. The balance between activation and/or detoxification processes is critical for immunogenic potentials of compounds. Therefore, we investigated N-acetylation (NAT) capacities of human skin for PPD to gain a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. PPD is acetylated to monoacetyl-PPD (MAPPD), which in turn is acetylated to N,N'-diacetyl-PPD (DAPPD). This was found using cytosolic fractions from human skin (n = 9) and cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (n = 7). The cutaneous activities for MAPPD formation ranged from 0.41 to 3.68 nmol/mg/min (9-fold variation) and DAPPD formation from 0.65 to 3.25 nmol/mg protein/min (5-fold), respectively. Similar results were obtained with keratinocytes. NAT activities toward both substrates, PPD and MAPPD, were correlated in keratinocytes (r = 0.930), suggesting that the reactions were catalyzed by the same enzyme. Formation of MAPPD and DAPPD was competitively inhibited in the presence of p-aminobenzoic acid (300 microM), a typical NAT1 substrate, but not by sulfamethazine. These kinetic characteristics suggest that the acetylation of PPD in human skin and keratinocytes is predominantly attributable to the polymorphic NAT1, although both mRNAs (NAT1 and NAT2) are synthesized in human skin and keratinocytes. The metabolism of PPD by NAT1 in human skin and keratinocytes as well as the virtual absence of NAT2 activity may have important toxicological implications. In the case of PPD, our results emphasize that N-acetylation status may be a susceptibility factor for the development of an allergy to PPD. (+info)
Photo-induced cyclic electron transfer involving cytochrome bc1 complex and reaction center in the obligate aerobic phototroph Roseobacter denitrificans.
Flash-induced redox changes of b-type and c-type cytochromes have been studied in chromatophores from the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans under redox-controlled conditions. The flash-oxidized primary donor P+ of the reaction center (RC) is rapidly re-reduced by heme H1 (Em,7 = 290 mV), heme H2 (Em,7 = 240 mV) or low-potential hemes L1/L2 (Em,7 = 90 mV) of the RC-bound tetraheme, depending on their redox state before photoexcitation. By titrating the extent of flash-induced low-potential heme oxidation, a midpoint potential equal to -50 mV has been determined for the primary quinone acceptor QA. Only the photo-oxidized heme H2 is re-reduced in tens of milliseconds, in a reaction sensitive to inhibitors of the bc1 complex, leading to the concomitant oxidation of a cytochrome c spectrally distinct from the RC-bound hemes. This reaction involves cytochrome c551 in a diffusional process. Participation of the bc1 complex in a cyclic electron transfer chain has been demonstrated by detection of flash-induced reduction of cytochrome b561, stimulated by antimycin and inhibited by myxothiazol. Cytochrome b561, reduced upon flash excitation, is re-oxidized slowly even in the absence of antimycin. The rate of reduction of cytochrome b561 in the presence of antimycin increases upon lowering the ambient redox potential, most likely reflecting the progressive prereduction of the ubiquinone pool. Chromatophores contain approximately 20 ubiquinone-10 molecules per RC. At the optimal redox poise, approximately 0.3 cytochrome b molecules per RC are reduced following flash excitation. Cytochrome b reduction titrates out at Eh < 100 mV, when low-potential heme(s) rapidly re-reduce P+ preventing cyclic electron transfer. Results can be rationalized in the framework of a Q-cycle-type model. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid penetration of CI-994 (N-acetyldinaline) in the nonhuman primate.
CI-994 is a substituted benzamide derivative that has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a broad spectrum of murine and human tumor models. Its mechanism of action is still unknown but seems to be novel compared with existing anticancer drugs. We studied the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of CI-994 in nonhuman primates. Three animals (total 4 doses) received an 80 mg/m2 dose of CI-994 administered over 20 min, and one animal received a dose of 100 mg/m2. Serial plasma and fourth ventricular CSF samples were obtained from 0 to 4320 min after administration of the 80-mg/m2 dose, and only plasma samples were obtained after the 100-mg/m2 dose. CI-994 was measured using a previously validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Elimination of CI-994 from plasma was triexponential (4 of 5 cases) or biexponential (1 of 5 cases), with a terminal half life (t1/2) of 7.4 +/- 2.5 h, volume of distribution of 15.5 +/- 1.8 L/m2, and clearance of 40 +/- 6 ml/min/m2. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for the 80-mg/m2 dose was 125 +/- 17 microM x hr. CI-994 was first detected in CSF at the completion of the i.v. infusion. Peak concentrations of CI-994 in CSF were 3.4 +/- 0.3 microM. Elimination from CSF was monoexponential (2 of 4 cases) or biexponential (2 of 4 cases) with a terminal t1/2 in CSF of 12.9 +/- 2.5 h and AUC of 55 +/- 18 microM x hr. The AUC(CSF):AUCplasma ratio was 43 +/- 10%. This study demonstrates that there is excellent CSF penetration of CI-994 after i.v. administration. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential role of CI-994 in the treatment of central nervous system neoplasms. (+info)
Expression and characterization of recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase. Impact of the R286H substitution on the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme.
Hereditary eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is a genetic abnormality characterized by a decrease or absence of peroxidase activity and a reduction of the granule matrix volume. Recently, we identified two mutations associated with eosinophil peroxidase deficiency in a subject and his siblings, i.e. a base insertion causing the appearance of a premature stop codon and a base transition causing the replacement of an Arg at codon 286 with a His (R286H). In this article we report the stable expression of both the recombinant wild-type and the R286H eosinophil peroxidase precursor in the K-562 cell line, and the effects of the R286H substitution on the structure and function of the eosinophil peroxidase precursor. Heme group incorporation into both the recombinant wild-type and the recombinant R286H eosinophil peroxidase precursor was comparable, as was the stability of both proteins. Instead, the recombinant R286H eosinophil peroxidase precursor exhibited marked alterations of the catalytic properties and an increased sensitivity to four peroxidase inhibitors with respect to both the recombinant wild-type eosinophil peroxidase precursor and the native enzyme. In addition, the recombinant wild-type, but not the R286H, eosinophil peroxidase precursor was immunoprecipitated by two anti-(eosinophil peroxidase) mAbs. Altogether, our results suggest a protein misfolding of the R286H eosinophil peroxidase precursor which might account for its altered catalytic properties and the absence of expression of some epitopes. (+info)
Cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens that increase dose per cycle (dose intensity) by extending daily dosing from 5 consecutive days to 28 consecutive days and beyond.
Dose intensity, defined as dose administered per unit time, has emerged as a potentially important measurement of anticancer drug exposure and determinant of efficacy. There are several strategies for increasing dose intensity, one being a protracted daily dosing strategy without major dose reduction for toxicity. This strategy involves continued therapy during periods of recovery from reversible toxicity, and it inherently challenges our understanding that renewing tissues cannot repopulate (recover) in the continued presence of cytotoxic drug. We have tested this idea directly in a murine preclinical trial. Specifically, we have tested whether acutely myelotoxic doses of gemcitabine (i.p. injection, 6.0 mg/m2/day), acetyldinaline [CI-994; GOE 5549; PD 123 654; 4-acetylamino-N-(2'-aminophenyl)-benzamide, 150 mg/m2/day p.o.], and/or melphalan (i.p. injection, 7.2 mg/m2/day) can be tolerated for 28 consecutive days and whether suppressed bone marrow function recovers despite this protracted daily therapy. The three drugs all caused acute neutropenia and suppression of medullary hematopoiesis. Damage to progenitor populations exposed to acetyldinaline and gemcitabine was not as severe as that caused by melphalan, in which case absolute neutrophil count, mature progenitors (colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage), and immature progenitors (colony-forming unit-S) progressively declined to severely depressed levels. Marrow recovery was observed during continued daily treatment with acetyldinaline and gemcitabine but not melphalan, and marrow function completely recovered after finishing the 28-day course. Pharmacology studies proved that protracted therapy causes little, if any, change in cellular drug tolerance or systemic exposure. (+info)
Modulation of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels by the novel anticonvulsant retigabine.
Retigabine is a novel anticonvulsant with an unknown mechanism of action. It has recently been reported that retigabine modulates a potassium channel current in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells (), however, to date the molecular correlate of this current has not been identified. In the present study we have examined the effects of retigabine on recombinant human KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 potassium channels, expressed either alone or in combination in Xenopus oocytes. Application of 10 microM retigabine to oocytes expressing the KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channel shifted both the activation threshold and voltage for half-activation by approximately 20 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, leading to an increase in current amplitude at test potentials between -80 mV and +20 mV. Retigabine also had a marked effect on KCNQ current kinetics, increasing the rate of channel activation but slowing deactivation at a given test potential. Similar effects of retigabine were observed in oocytes expressing KCNQ2 alone, suggesting that KCNQ2 may be the molecular target of retigabine. Membrane potential recordings in oocytes expressing the KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channel showed that application of retigabine leads to a concentration-dependent hyperpolarization of the oocyte, from a resting potential of -63 mV under control conditions to -85 mV in the presence of 100 microM retigabine (IC(50) = 5.2 microM). In control experiments retigabine had no effect on either resting membrane potential or endogenous oocyte membrane currents. In conclusion, we have shown that retigabine acts as a KCNQ potassium channel opener. Because the heteromeric KCNQ2/3 channel has recently been reported to underlie the M-current, it is likely that M-current modulation can explain the anticonvulsant actions of retigabine in animal models of epilepsy. (+info)