The accessibility of iron at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase to water as studied by 1H NMR paramagnetic relaxation. Effect of L-Phe and comparison with the rat enzyme.
The high-spin (S = 5/2) Fe(III) ion at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has a paramagnetic effect on the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons. This effect is proportional to the concentration of enzyme, with a paramagnetic molar-relaxivity value at 400 MHz and 25 degrees C of 1. 3 (+/- 0.03) x 10(3) s-1 M-1. The value of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) for the relaxation rate was -14.4 +/- 1.1 kJ/mol for the resting enzyme, indicating a fast exchange of water protons in the paramagnetic environment. The frequency dependence of the relaxation rate also supported this hypothesis. Thus, the recombinant human PAH appears to have a more solvent-accessible catalytic iron than the rat enzyme, in which the water coordinated to the metal is slowly exchanging with the solvent. These findings may be related to the level of basal activity before activation for these enzymes, which is higher for human than for rat PAH. In the presence of saturating (5 mM) concentrations of the substrate L-Phe, the paramagnetic molar relaxivity for human PAH decreased to 0.72 (+/- 0.05) x 10(3) s-1 M-1 with no significant change in the Ea. Effective correlation times (tauC) of 1.8 (+/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and 1.25 (+/- 0.2) x 10(-10) s-1 were calculated for the enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively, and most likely represent the electron spin relaxation rate (tauS) for Fe(III) in each case. Together with the paramagnetic molar-relaxivity values, the tauC values were used to estimate Fe(III)-water distances. It seems that at least one of the three water molecules coordinated to the iron in the resting rat and human enzymes is displaced from coordination on the binding of L-Phe at the active site. (+info)
A model of human phenylalanine metabolism in normal subjects and in phenylketonuric patients.
The derivation of a quantitative model of phenylalanine metabolism in humans is described. The model is based on the kinetic properties of pure recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase and on estimates of the in vivo rates of phenylalanine transamination and protein degradation. Calculated values for the steady-state concentration of blood phenylalanine, rate of clearance of phenylalanine from the blood after an oral load of the amino acid, and dietary tolerance of phenylalanine all agree well with data from normal as well as from phenylketonuric patients and obligate heterozygotes. These calculated values may help in the decision about the degree of restriction of phenylalanine intake that is necessary to achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome in classical patients and in those with milder forms of the disease. (+info)
Haplotypes and mutations of the PAH locus in Egyptian families with PKU.
A high degree of molecular heterogeneneity at the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus was established by examining RFLP haplotypes and PAH mutations in the families of 13 Egyptians with phenylketenouria (PKU). Thirteen different haplotypes were unequivocally determined in these kindreds. Haplotypes 1.8, 3.9, 4.3, 7.8, 22.11, 27.6, and 52.8 were found segregating with normal chromosomes, whilst haplotypes 1.8, 5.9, 23.8, 32.8, the newly assigned 73.9, and two as yet incomplete but novel haplotypes were found segregating with the mutant chromosomes. There was no particular preference for a single haplotype among normal or mutant chromosomes. Nine different mutations were also identified among the 26 alleles. IVS 10nt11g (8/26), IVS 2nt5g-c (4/26), R261Q (3/26), R176X (2/26), Y206D (2/26), S231P (2/26), Y198fs [593-614del22bp]; (2/26), G46fs [136/137delG]; (1/26), and E178G (1/26). Six of these mutations (IVS 2nt5g-c, R176X, Y198fs, R261Q, S231P, and IVS 10nt11g) are common to other Mediterranean populations. Two mutations not previously reported in the Mediterranean basin were also observed (Y206D and G46fs). These intriguing preliminary findings confirm IVS 10nt11g as a major mutation among Mediterranean mutations and demonstrate the need for a more comprehensive study of Arab populations to confirm the uniqueness of the two novel mutations to the Egyptian population. (+info)
PhhB, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog of mammalian pterin 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase/DCoH, does not regulate expression of phenylalanine hydroxylase at the transcriptional level.
Pterin 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase is bifunctional in mammals. In addition to playing a catalytic role in pterin recycling in the cytoplasm, it plays a regulatory role in the nucleus, where it acts as a dimerization-cofactor component (called DCoH) for the transcriptional activator HNF-1alpha. A thus far unique operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains a gene encoding a homolog (PhhB) of the regulatory dehydratase, together with genes encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PhhA) and aromatic aminotransferase (PhhC). Using complementation of tyrosine auxotrophy in Escherichia coli as a functional test, we have found that the in vivo function of PhhA requires PhhB. Strikingly, mammalian DCoH was an effective substitute for PhhB, and either one was effective in trans. Surprisingly, the required presence of PhhB for complementation did not reflect a critical positive regulatory effect of phhB on phhA expression. Rather, in the absence of PhhB, PhhA was found to be extremely toxic in E. coli, probably due to the nonenzymatic formation of 7-biopterin or a similar derivative. However, bacterial PhhB does appear to exert modest regulatory effects in addition to having a catalytic function. PhhB enhances the level of PhhA two- to threefold, as was demonstrated by gene inactivation of phhB in P. aeruginosa and by comparison of the levels of expression of PhhA in the presence and absence of PhhB in Escherichia coli. Experiments using constructs having transcriptional and translational fusions with a lacZ reporter indicated that PhhB activates PhhA at the posttranscriptional level. Regulation of PhhA and PhhB is semicoordinate; both PhhA and PhhB are induced coordinately in the presence of either L-tyrosine or L-phenylalanine, but PhhB exhibits a significant basal level of activity that is lacking for PhhA. Immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography showed that PhhA and PhhB form a protein-protein complex. (+info)
Radiation target analysis indicates that phenylalanine hydroxylase in rat liver extracts is a functional monomer.
The minimal enzymatically functional form of purified rat hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a dimer of identical subunits. Radiation target analysis of PAH revealed that the minimal enzymatically active form in crude extracts corresponds to the monomer. The 'negative regulation' properties of the tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor in both crude and pure samples implicates a large multimeric structure, minimally a tetramer of PAH subunits. Preincubation of the samples with phenylalanine prior to irradiation abolished this inhibition component without affecting the minimal functional unit target sizes of the enzyme in both preparations. The characteristics of rat hepatic PAH determined by studies of the purified enzyme in vitro may not completely represent the properties of PAH in vivo. (+info)
Genetic and phenotypic aspects of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency in Spain: molecular survey by regions.
We present an extensive study of the genetic diversity of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency in the Spanish phenylketonuria population. We have analysed 195 PKU patients by DGGE analysis identifying 67 different mutations which represent 89% of the total mutant chromosomes. Seventeen mutations first described in Spain have not yet been detected elsewhere; ten of these are reported here for the first time. The clinical significance of this high genetic heterogeneity was examined by analysing the genotype-phenotype correlations, mainly focusing on the mild hyperphenylalaninaemia (MHP) phenotype. The genotypes found in a group of 93 MHP patients, the largest analysed so far, are described in detail, as well as the relative frequencies of the MHP mutations identified. From the total pool of mutations, 27 can be considered severe, 18 can be defined as mild and 13 as associated with MHP. The prevalent mutations correspond to one severe mutation (IVS10nt-11), one MHP mutation (A403V) and two mild mutations (165T and V388M). The high frequency of mutations with a low degree of severity can explain the relatively higher prevalence of MHP and mild PKU phenotypes in Spain compared with NOrthern European populations. We have looked at the geographical distribution in Spain of the more common mutations, finding evidence of local mutation clustering, which could be the result of differences in the ethnic background and/or of genetic drift within each region. (+info)
Cognitive deficits in a genetic mouse model of the most common biochemical cause of human mental retardation.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah)-deficient "PKU mice" have a mutation in the Pah gene that causes phenylketonuria (PKU) in humans. PKU produces cognitive deficits in humans if it is untreated. We report here the first evidence that the genetic mouse model of PKU (Pah(enu2)) also produces cognitive impairments. PKU mice were impaired on both odor discrimination reversal and latent learning compared with heterozygote littermates and with wild-type mice of the same BTBR strain. A small container of cinnamon-scented sand was presented on the right or left, and nutmeg-scented sand was presented on the other side; left-right location varied over trials. Digging in sand of the correct scent was rewarded by finding phenylalanine-free chocolate. To prevent scent cuing, new containers were used on every trial, and both containers always contained chocolate. Digging in the incorrect choice was stopped before the chocolate was uncovered. Once criterion was reached, the other scent was rewarded. PKU mice were impaired on reversals 2, 3, and 4. They were also impaired in latent learning. On day 1, half the mice were allowed to explore a maze and discover the location of water. On day 2, all mice were water-deprived and were placed in the maze. Whereas pre-exposed wild-type and heterozygous mice showed evidence that they remembered the location of the water and hence could find the water faster on day 2, pre-exposed PKU mice showed no significant benefit from their pre-exposure on day 1. (+info)
Diverse PAH transcripts in lymphocytes of PKU patients with putative nonsense (G272X, Y356X) and missense (P281L, R408Q) mutations.
The majority of mutations in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene that lead to the recessive disease phenylketonuria (PKU) are believed to affect the activity or stability of the PAH enzyme. In this study we have performed in vivo analyses of lymphocyte PAH mRNA from PKU patients homozygous for the PKU missense mutations P281L and R408Q as well as the nonsense mutations G272X and Y356X. The mutations G272X, P281L and R408Q, which are located outside the consensus splice site sequence, result in transcripts with one or more exons skipped in addition to full-length transcripts. The mutation Y356X results in transcripts with one or more exons skipped, but no full-length transcripts. Our findings question the value of functional and structural predictions of mutations at the protein level without analyses of the corresponding transcript. (+info)