A method for analyzing enzyme kinetics with substrate activation and inhibition and its application to the alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl acetates.
A general kinetic method was developed to analyze enzyme-catalyzed systems complicated by the presence of activation or inhibition by substrate. The method was applied to the alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 18.104.22.168]-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-chlorophenyl and p-methoxyphenyl acetates. Deacylation rate constants which were not complicated by substrate activation were obtained. The analysis shows that the abnormal substituent dependence of kcat in the steady state hydrolysis is due not to substrate activation but to inappropriateness of the two-step mechanism or the existence of more than one acetyl-enzyme intermediate. (+info)
Antagonist activity of alpha-substituted 4-carboxyphenylglycine analogues at group I metabotropic glutamate receptors expressed in CHO cells.
1. We have investigated the antagonist properties of 6 alpha-substituted phenylglycine analogues based on the structure of 4-carboxyphenylglycine (4-CPG) for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a) permanently expressed in CHO cells. 2. (S)-4-CPG and (S)-MCPG were the most selective mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists. Longer chain alpha-carbon substitutions resulted in a progressive loss of antagonist affinity at mGlu1alpha receptors but not at mGlu5a receptors. Thus mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists require small aliphatic groups at the alpha-position. Alpha-cyclopropyl-4-CPG showed a tendency towards mGlu5a selectivity, suggesting that bulky groups at this position may favour mGlu5a receptor antagonism. 3. We demonstrate that the mGlu5a receptor displays agonist-dependent antagonism. L-glutamate-induced Ca2+ release in mGlu5a receptor expressing cells was more susceptible to antagonism by cyclic alpha-carbon derivatives than (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced Ca2+ release in the same cell line. 4. The data presented suggests that mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a receptors have different steric and/or conformational requirements for the binding of antagonists and different amino acids which could interact with agonists. 5. These phenylglycine analogues could provide leads for the development of subtype selective antagonists. (+info)
Phase II study of phenylacetate in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium report.
PURPOSE: To determine the response rate, time to treatment failure, and toxicity of phenylacetate in patients with recurrent malignant glioma and to identify plasma concentrations achieved during repeated continuous infusion of this agent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients with recurrent malignant glioma were treated with phenylacetate. The schedule consisted of a 2-week continuous, intravenous infusion followed by a 2-week rest period (14 days on, 14 days off). A starting dose of 400 mg/kg total body weight per day of phenylacetate was initially used and subsequently changed to 400 mg/kg/d based on ideal body weight. Intrapatient dose escalations were allowed to a maximum of 450 mg/kg ideal body weight/d. Tumor response was assessed every 8 weeks. The National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria were used to assess toxicity. Plasma concentrations achieved during the patients' first two 14-day infusions were assessed. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were enrolled between December 1994 and December 1996. Of these, 40 patients were assessable for toxicity and response to therapy. Reversible symptoms of fatigue and somnolence were the primary toxicities, with only mild hematologic toxicity. Thirty (75%) of the 40 patients failed treatment within 2 months, seven (17.5%) had stable disease, and three (7.5%) had a response defined as more than 50% reduction in the tumor. Median time to treatment failure was 2 months. Thirty-five patients have died, with a median survival of 8 months. Pharmacokinetic data for this dose schedule showed no difference in the mean plasma concentrations of phenylacetate between weeks 1 and 2 or between weeks 5 and 6. CONCLUSION: Phenylacetate has little activity at this dose schedule in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Further studies with this drug would necessitate an evaluation of a different dose schedule. (+info)
Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man.
Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete. (+info)
Failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.
A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear. (+info)
New methods for determining the enantiomeric purity of erythro -sphingosine.
The enantiomeric purity of erythro -sphingosine samples can be determined simply, reliably, and accurately from 1H or 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetate (MTPA) derivative. As little as 0.1% of the minor enantiomer could be observed in a 1-mg sample, and detection limits of 1% and 5% were estimated for samples of 100 microg and 10 microg. The two threo -sphingosine enantiomers and four dihydrosphingosine stereoisomers were also differentiated by this technique, which served as an effective method for assessing the purity of sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine samples. Enantiomeric and diastereomeric purities could also be determined by normal-phase high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the MTPA derivatives. (+info)
Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.
At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity. (+info)
Urinary tract toxicity in rats following administration of beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists.
ZD7114, [(S)-4-[2-(2-hydroxy-3 phenoxypropylamine)ethoxy]-N-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxyacetamide], and ZD2079, [(R)-N-(2-[4- (carboxymethyl)phenoxy]ethyl)-N-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)ammonium chloride], are beta 3-adrenoceptor stimulants with selectivity for brown adipose tissue. ZD7144 is the hydrochloride salt of the S-enantiomer of the racemic amide ZD2079. They were developed as potential novel treatments for obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Male and female rats were dosed separately by gavage for a minimum of 28 days with 0, 10, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day of ZD7114 or with 0, 10, 30, and 150 mg/kg/day of ZD2079. Two further groups of male and female rats were dosed with 0 and 500 mg/kg/day of ZD7114 for 28 days and were then allowed a 6-wk, undosed withdrawal period. At high doses, both compounds caused urinary tract toxicity, which primarily affected the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney via tubular necrosis. They also caused ureteric inflammation, cystitis, and accumulation of crystalline inclusions throughout the urinary tract. As a result of urinary tract toxicity, affected animals from one or both studies showed reduced red blood cell indices, lower platelet counts, and higher white cell counts. Blood chemistry revealed lower plasma concentrations of glucose (7.28 +/- 1.37 compared to 8.11 +/- 0.65 for the control) and total protein (63.42 +/- 3.65 compared to 69.17 +/- 3.24 for the control) and increased plasma urea (37.15 +/- 19.96 compared to 8.09 +/- 0.87 for the control). Urinalysis showed an increase in the number of crystals, blood, and protein. In the urinary tract, the severe crystalluria with accumulation of crystalline material indicated that this may have a role in the etiology of the target organ toxicity. Poor solubility of the compounds at normal urinary pH was considered a possible mechanism for the crystalluria. (+info)