The contribution of extraneuronal uptake to the trachea-blood vessel selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor stimulants in vitro in guinea-pigs.
1 The potencies relative to isoprenaline of isoetharine, tertiary butyl noradrenaline, salbutamol, orciprenaline, Me 506, rimiterol, fenoterol, carbuterol and terbutaline on isolated preparations of guinea-pig trachea and blood vessels (perfused hind limb) were determined. All the compounds were selective for trachea and selectivity values, i.e. relative potency on trachea divided by relative potency on hind limb, ranged from 2.3 to 21.4. 2 Responses to isoprenaline (the reference compound), tertiary butyl noradrenaline and isoetharine were potentiated on trachea by 50 muM phenoxybenzamine (PHB) and by other inhibitors of extraneuronal uptake (ENU). Under these conditions the selectivity values of all the compounds was close to unity. 3 Selectivity values were also close to unity if they were calculated from data obtained without ENU inhibition, provided that only those compounds not potentiated by PHB on trachea were used. 4 It is proposed that the trachea-blood vessel selectivity shown by beta-adrenoceptor stimulants can be caused by the influence of ENU upon them, rather than by their ability to distinguish between two beta2-adrenoceptors. 5 The suggestion that differences exist between beta2-adrenoceptors in respiratory and vascular smooth muscle is not supported by the in vitro experiments described. (+info)
Effects of calcium-antagonistic drugs on the stimulation by carbamoylcholine and histamine of phosphatidylinositol turnover in longitudinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum.
A number of drugs classed as calcium antagonists, spasmolytics, non-specific receptor antagonists or receptor antagonists with multiple sites of action were tested to determine whether they prevent the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover caused in various tissues by the activation of receptors which increase cell-surface Ca2+ permeability. The experiments were done with fragments of longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea-pig ileum; these were incubated in vitro with 32Pi and either 100 muM-carbamoylcholine or 100 muM-histamine, in the presence of antagonistic drugs at concentrations at least sufficient to cause complete blockade of smooth-muscle contraction. The phosphatidylinositol response to carbamoylcholine was not changed by cinchocaine, papaverine, nifedipine, dibenamine, amethocaine, cinnarizine, lidoflazine, methoxyverapamil, prenylamine or two antimuscarinic alkane-bis-ammonium compounds, and the response to histamine was unaffected by the first four drugs. In contrast, phenoxybenzamine prevented the increase in phosphatidylinositol labelling caused by either carbamoylcholine or histamine. The insensitivity of the phosphatidylinositol response to most of the drugs provides further experimental support for the conclusion that the receptor-stimulated phosphatidylinositol breakdown which initiates the increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover is not caused by an increase in intracellular Ca2+. The simplest interpretation of the available information appears to be that phosphatidylinositol breakdown plays a role in the coupling between the receptor-agonist interaction and the opening of cell-surface Ca2+ gates [Michell, R. H. (1975) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 415, 81-147]. If this is correct, then phenoxybenzamine must exert its inhibitory effects on phosphatidylinositol breakdown early in this sequence of events, but the drugs must act at a stage later than phosphatidylinositol breakdown. The unexpected difference in the effects of dibenamine and phenoxybenzamine, which are chemically very similar, may provide a useful experimental tool with which to explore the way in which activated receptors provoke the opening of cell-surface Ca2+ gates. (+info)
Non-specific action of methoxamine on Ito, and the cloned channels hKv 1.5 and Kv 4.2.
The alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine acted independently of receptor activation to reduce Ito and the sustained outward current in rat ventricular myocytes, and hKv 1.5 and Kv 4.2 cloned K+ channel currents. Two hundred microM methoxamine reduced Ito by 36% in the presence of 2 microM prazosin, and by 37 and 38% after preincubation of myocytes with either N-ethylmaleimide or phenoxybenzamine (n=6). The EC50 values at +60 mV for direct reduction of Ito, hKv 1.5, and Kv 4.2 by methoxamine were 239, 276, and 363 microM, respectively, with Hill coefficients of 0.87-1.5. Methoxamine accelerated Ito and Kv 4.2 current inactivation in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Apparent rate constants for methoxamine binding and unbinding gave Kd values in agreement with EC50 values measured from dose-response relations. The voltage-dependence of block supported charged methoxamine binding to a putative intracellular site that sensed approximately 20% of the transmembrane electrical field. In the presence of methoxamine, deactivating Kv 4.2 tail currents displayed a distinct rising phase, and were slowed relative to control, such that tail current crossover was observed. These observations support a dominant mechanism of open channel block, although closed channel block could not be ruled out. Single-channel data from hKv 1.5 patches revealed increased closed times with blank sweeps and decreased burst duration in the presence of drug, and a reduction of mean channel open time from 1.8 ms in control to 0.4 ms in 500 microM methoxamine. For this channel, therefore, both open and closed channel block appeared to be important mechanisms for the action of methoxamine. (+info)
Central injections of capsaicin cause antidiuresis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in rat hypothalamus and vasopressin release.
Intracerebroventricular injections of capsaicin at 100-500 nmol elicited dose-dependent decreases in urine outflow volume in anesthetized, hydrated rats. The capsaicin (500 nmol)-induced antidiuresis was inhibited by pretreatment with CP96345 (30 nmol, a neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist), but not by that with phenoxybenzamine (20 nmol, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist), timolol (100 nmol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) or atropine (300 nmol, a muscarinic antagonist) into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). Intravenous injections of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (50 microg/kg, a vasopressin-receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidiuresis. In intra-SON microdialysis experiments, acetylcholine concentration in the perfusate of the capsaicin-injected rats was not different from that of the vehicle-injected rats. These findings suggested that capsaicin stimulated substance P release in the SON and caused the antidiuresis as a result of the increased release of vasopressin into the circulation from the neurohypophysis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in the SON. (+info)
The intraocular pressure response of conscious rabbits to clonidine.
A study has been made of the time courses of the pupillary and intraocular pressure responses of conscious rabbits to clonidine administered either topically or intravenously. Topical unilateral application of clonidine caused transient pupil dilatation and a biphasic intraocular pressure response; an initial hypertensive response preceded a hypotensive phase lasting several hours. Pupillary and hypertensive responses were absent in the untreated eye, but there was a rapid decrease of intraocular pressure. Intravenous administration of clonidine caused an immediate and large decrease of intraocular pressure in both eyes. Phenoxybenzamine given intravenously inhibited the pupillary dilatation and the hypertensive responses to clonidine. The role of efferent adrenergic neuronal activity in mediating the local biphasic pressure response was studied in rabbits with unilateral precervical and postcervical sympathotomy. The results showed the hypotensive response to be dependent on an intact adrenergic innervation of the ocular tissues. (+info)
Sympathectomy inhibits the vasoactive effects of nicotine in conscious rats.
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the pressor response to nicotine are incompletely understood. Although sympatho-adrenergic activation plays a major role, the relative contribution of adrenal vs. neurally released catecholamines and the possible role of non-adrenergic factors (e.g. vasopressin release) is not established. METHODS: We examined the cardiovascular responses to graded i.v. injections of nicotine (1 to 100 micrograms kg-1) in conscious Wistar-Kyoto rats under control conditions and (i) after chemical sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine, which destroys sympathetic endings but spares the adrenal medulla; (ii) after an alpha-adrenergic blockade by phenoxybenzamine; (iii) after a V1 vasopressin receptor blockade by a specific antagonist. RESULTS: In control rats, nicotine caused a dose-dependent tachycardiac and pressor response. Both responses were abolished by sympathectomy, whereas the alpha-blockade left the tachycardiac response unaffected but inhibited the pressor response: the V1 vasopressin receptor blockade had no effect on either the tachycardiac or pressor response. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in the conscious rat; (1) the pressor response to nicotine mainly depends on peripheral alpha-adrenergically-mediated vasoconstriction; (2) the vasomotor effect is caused by neural rather than adrenomedullary catecholamine release; (3) the nicotine-induced increase in heart rate (and presumably cardiac output) is per se unable to raise blood pressure, and (4) the nicotine-induced release of vasopressin plays no significant role in the pressor response. (+info)
Time course of isolated rat fundus response to muscarinic agonists: a measure of intrinsic efficacy.
The establishment of a dose-response relationship and its quantification is the usual procedure for analysing drug action on an isolated organ. However, the time course of the effect seems to be an inherent characteristic of the agonist which produces it. In our study, we have analyzed the time-response curves of four cholinergic agonists (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol and bethanechol) which produce tonic contractions of the isolated rat gastric fundus. The order of affinity of agonists to muscarinic receptors on the rat fundus were carbachol > bethanechol > methacholine > acetylcholine (K(A) values: 46 +/- 12, 84 +/- 21, 380 +/- 110 and 730 +/- 120 nM, respectively). The effective concentrations which produced 60% of the maximal response (EC60) were used for establishing the time-response curves. The time-response curves were also recorded after partial alkylation of muscarinic receptors with phenoxybenzamine, after exposure of the isolated rat fundus to physostigmine and after addition of supramaximal concentrations of the agonists. The experimental time-response curve for acetylcholine was on the extreme left, followed by curves for methacholine, bethanechol and carbachol, respectively. Phenoxybenzamine and supramaximal doses of the agonists did not change the order of response development in time, but supramaximal doses shifted all curves to the left and phenoxybenzamine shifted all time-response curves to the right. Only physostigmine shifted the time-response curve for methacholine to the right. The results of our study suggest that the response rate of the isolated rat gastric fundus to cholinergic agonists depends on the intrinsic activity of these agents, but not on their affinity for muscarinic receptors. (+info)
Dopamine agonists both stimulate and inhibit prolactin release in GH4ZR7 cells.
Prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by multiple factors including prolactin-release inhibiting factors (PIFs) and prolactin releasing factors. PIFs, however, usually dominate to exert a tonic inhibition in the biological system, and the physiological PIF is believed to be dopamine. However, there is accumulating evidence that dopamine can not only inhibit but also stimulate prolactin release. Many investigators believe that this is achieved by activating inhibitory and stimulatory subtypes of dopamine receptors. We tried to demonstrate that one subtype of dopamine receptors is capable of both inhibiting or stimulating prolactin release using GH(4)ZR(7) cells. GH(4)ZR(7) cells express only a short form of dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2s)). Low concentrations of three well-established D(2) receptor agonists (dopamine, apomorphine and bromocriptine) stimulated prolactin release from GH(4)ZR(7) cells while high concentrations inhibited the release. Haloperidol, a D(2) receptor antagonist, blocked the inhibitory action, but was unable to block the dopamine-induced stimulatory action. Pretreatment of cells with phenoxybenzamine, a receptor alkylating agent, abolished both the dopamine-induced stimulatory and inhibitory actions. Our results support the thesis that the stimulation of prolactin release induced by dopamine is mediated through dopamine D(2s) receptors since the GH(4)ZR(7) cells have only D(2s) receptors among dopamine receptors. We have concluded that the D(2s) receptor is capable of both stimulating and inhibiting prolactin release, probably via the activation of a G(s) protein by low concentrations and a G(i) protein by high concentrations of dopaminergic agents. (+info)