The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol.
The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol. (+info)
Methods for detection of Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA in soil.
Two methods, phenol-ether and magnetic capture-hybridization (MCH), were developed and compared with regard to their sensitivities and abilities to extract the DNA of the insect baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) from soil and to produce DNA amplifiable by PCR. Laboratory experiments were performed with 0. 25 g of autoclaved soil inoculated with different viral concentrations to optimize both methods of baculovirus DNA extraction and to determine their sensitivities. Both procedures produced amplifiable DNA; however, the MCH method was 100-fold more sensitive than the phenol-ether procedure. The removal of PCR inhibitors from the soil appeared to be complete when MCH was used as the viral DNA isolation method, because undiluted aliquots of the DNA preparations could be amplified by PCR. The phenol-ether procedure probably did not completely remove PCR inhibitors from the soil, since PCR products were observed only when the AgMNPV DNA preparations were diluted 10- or 100-fold. AgMNPV DNA was detected in field-collected soil samples from 15 to 180 days after virus application when the MCH procedure to isolate DNA was coupled with PCR amplification of the polyhedrin region. (+info)
Metabolism of [14C]phenol in the isolated perfused mouse liver.
A previous report from this laboratory focused on the metabolism of [14C]benzene (BZ) in the isolated, perfused, mouse liver (C. C. Hedli, et al., 1997, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146, 60-68). Whereas administration of BZ to mice results in bone marrow depression (R. Snyder et al., 1993, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 20, 191-194), administration of phenol (P), the major metabolite of BZ, does not. It was, therefore, of interest to determine whether the metabolic fate of P produced during BZ metabolism differed from that of P metabolized in the absence of BZ. Mouse livers were perfused with a solution of [14C]P in both the orthograde (portal vein to central vein) and retrograde (central vein to portal vein) direction to investigate the metabolic zonation of enzymes involved in P hydroxylation and conjugation. Perfusate samples were collected, separated by HPLC, and tested for radioactivity. Unconjugated metabolites were identified by comparing their retention times with nonradiolabeled standards, which were detected by UV absorption. Conjugated metabolites were identified and collected on the basis of radiochromatogram results, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and identified by co-chromatography with unlabeled BZ metabolites. The objective was to compare and quantify the metabolites formed during the perfusion of P in the orthograde and retrograde directions and to compare the orthograde P-perfusion results with the orthograde BZ results reported previously. Regardless of the direction of P perfusion, the major compounds released from the liver were P. phenylgucuronide, phenylsulfate, hydroquinone (HQ), and HQ glucuronide. A comparison of the results of perfusing P in the orthograde versus the retrograde direction showed that more P was recovered unchanged and more HQ was formed during retrograde perfusion. The results suggest that enzymes involved in P hydroxylation are generally closer to the central vein than those involved in conjugation, and that during retrograde perfusion, P metabolism may be limited by the sub-optimal conditions of perfusion. Comparison of the orthograde perfusion studies of P and BZ revealed that a larger percentage of the radioactivity released from the liver was identified as unconjugated HQ after BZ perfusion than after P perfusion. In addition, the amount of radioactivity covalently bound to liver macromolecules was measured after each perfusion and determined to be proportional to the amount of HQ and HQG detected in the perfusate samples. (+info)
An outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of a phenol-digesting activated-sludge process.
Activated sludge was fed phenol as the sole carbon source, and the phenol-loading rate was increased stepwise from 0.5 to 1.0 g liter-1 day-1 and then to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. After the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1, nonflocculating bacteria outgrew the sludge, and the activated-sludge process broke down within 1 week. The bacterial population structure of the activated sludge was analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments. We found that the population diversity decreased as the phenol-loading rate increased and that two populations (designated populations R6 and R10) predominated in the sludge during the last several days before breakdown. The R6 population was present under the low-phenol-loading-rate conditions, while the R10 population was present only after the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. A total of 41 bacterial strains with different repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR patterns were isolated from the activated sludge under different phenol-loading conditions, and the 16S rDNA and gyrB fragments of these strains were PCR amplified and sequenced. Some bacterial isolates could be associated with major TGGE bands by comparing the 16S rDNA sequences. All of the bacterial strains affiliated with the R6 population had almost identical 16S rDNA sequences, while the gyrB phylogenetic analysis divided these strains into two physiologically divergent groups; both of these groups of strains could grow on phenol, while one group (designated the R6F group) flocculated in laboratory media and the other group (the R6T group) did not. A competitive PCR analysis in which specific gyrB sequences were used as the primers showed that a population shift from R6F to R6T occurred following the increase in the phenol-loading rate to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. The R10 population corresponded to nonflocculating phenol-degrading bacteria. Our results suggest that an outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of the activated-sludge process. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of gyrB-targeted fine population analyses in microbial ecology. (+info)
Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. nov. and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov.
A taxonomic characterization of twenty-one strains capable of degrading aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions, isolated from ten different geographical locations, was performed on the basis of general morphological and physiological characteristics, cellular fatty acids, DNA base composition, small ribosomal (16S) subunit DNA sequences, whole-cell protein patterns and genomic DNA fragmentation analysis, in addition to DNA similarity estimations using hybridization methods. The collection of strains was subdivided into a number of different groups. A first group, consisting of four strains, could be assigned to the previously described species Azoarcus tolulyticus. A second group (five strains) had DNA which reannealed highly to that of strains of the first group, and it is considered to represent a genomovar of A. tolulyticus. The third and fourth groups, composed of a total of five strains, represent a new species of Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluclasticus (group 3) and a genomovar of this species (group 4), respectively. Finally, the fifth group, with two strains, corresponds to another new species of the genus Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluvorans. In addition to these five groups, the collection includes five individual strains perhaps representing as many different new species. The above classification is partially consistent with the results of approaches other than DNA-DNA hybridization (electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell proteins and of the fragments obtained after digestion of total DNA with infrequently cutting restriction enzymes). On the other hand, no correlation of these groupings was found in terms of the cellular fatty acid composition. It is also unfortunate that no simple sets of easily determinable phenotypic properties could be defined as being characteristic of each of the groups. (+info)
Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment.
Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition. (+info)
Novel effector control through modulation of a preexisting binding site of the aromatic-responsive sigma(54)-dependent regulator DmpR.
The Pseudomonas derived sigma(54)-dependent DmpR activator regulates transcription of the (methyl)phenol catabolic dmp-operon. DmpR is constitutively expressed, but its transcriptional promoting activity is positively controlled in direct response to the presence of multiple aromatic effectors. Previous work has led to a model in which effector binding by the amino-terminal region of the protein relieves repression of an intrinsic ATPase activity essential for its transcriptional promoting property. Here, we address whether the observed differences in the potencies of the multiple effectors (i) reside at the level of different aromatic binding sites, or (ii) are mediated through differential binding affinities; furthermore, we address whether binding of distinct aromatic effectors has different functional consequences for DmpR activity. These questions were addressed by comparing wild type and an effector specificity mutant of DmpR with respect to effector binding characteristics and the ability of aromatics to elicit ATPase activity and transcription. The results demonstrate that six test aromatics all share a common binding site on DmpR and that binding affinities determine the concentration at which DmpR responds to the presence of the effector, but not the magnitude of the responses. Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the novel abilities of the effector specificity mutant are not primarily due to acquisition of new binding abilities, but rather, they reside in being able to productively couple ATPase activity to transcriptional activation. The mechanistic implications of these findings in terms of aromatic control of DmpR activity are discussed. (+info)
Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans.
Studies attempting to evaluate protein assimilation in humans have hitherto relied on either ileostomy subjects or intubation techniques. The availability of stable isotope-labeled protein allowed us to determine the amount and fate of dietary protein escaping digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy volunteers using noninvasive tracer techniques. Ten healthy volunteers were studied once after ingestion of a cooked test meal, consisting of 25 g of (13)C-, (15)N-, and (2)H-labeled egg protein, and once after ingestion of the same but raw meal. Amounts of 5.73% and 35.10% (P < 0.005) of cooked and raw test meal, respectively, escaped digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A significantly higher percentage of the malabsorbed raw egg protein was recovered in urine as fermentation metabolites. These results 1) confirm that substantial amounts of even easily digestible proteins may escape assimilation in healthy volunteers and 2) further support the hypothesis that the metabolic fate of protein in the colon is affected by the amount of protein made available. (+info)