Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation.
Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation. (+info)
Dietary fish oils inhibit early events in the assembly of very low density lipoproteins and target apoB for degradation within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hamster hepatocytes.
Dietary fish oils inhibited secretion and stimulated intracellular degradation of apolipoprotein (apo)B in hamster hepatocytes, while dietary sunflower oils stimulated secretion and had no effect on degradation of apoB. To investigate the intracellular site at which fish oils act, we have made use of our previous observations that inhibition of degradation by N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) results in accumulation of apoB in the trans -Golgi membrane and does not stimulate secretion, while inhibition of degradation by o-phenanthroline results in accumulation of apoB in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane and stimulates secretion. Thus, ALLN protects apoB which has been diverted from secretion and o -phenanthroline protects apoB which is targetted for secretion. Addition of o -phenantholine to the incubation medium of hepatocytes from fish oil-fed hamsters inhibited degradation of apoB and stimulated its secretion in particles of the density of VLDL, while addition of ALLN had no effect. These observations suggest that dietary fish oils reversibly inhibit early steps in the assembly of very low density lipoprotein precursors and target apoB for degradation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (+info)
SAG, a novel zinc RING finger protein that protects cells from apoptosis induced by redox agents.
SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene) was cloned as an inducible gene by 1,10-phenanthroline (OP), a redox-sensitive compound and an apoptosis inducer. SAG encodes a novel zinc RING finger protein that consists of 113 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 12.6 kDa. SAG is highly conserved during evolution, with identities of 70% between human and Caenorhabditis elegans sequences and 55% between human and yeast sequences. In human tissues, SAG is ubiquitously expressed at high levels in skeletal muscles, heart, and testis. SAG is localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells, and its gene was mapped to chromosome 3q22-24. Bacterially expressed and purified human SAG binds to zinc and copper metal ions and prevents lipid peroxidation induced by copper or a free radical generator. When overexpressed in several human cell lines, SAG protects cells from apoptosis induced by redox agents (the metal chelator OP and zinc or copper metal ions). Mechanistically, SAG appears to inhibit and/or delay metal ion-induced cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Thus, SAG is a cellular protective molecule that appears to act as an antioxidant to inhibit apoptosis induced by metal ions and reactive oxygen species. (+info)
Metalloproteinases are involved in lipopolysaccharide- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated regulation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine receptor expression.
The neutrophil-specific G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, bind with high affinity to the potent chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mechanisms of IL-8 receptor regulation are not well defined, although previous studies have suggested a process of ligand-promoted internalization as a putative regulatory pathway. Herein, we provide evidence for two distinct processes of CXCR1 and CXCR2 regulation. Confocal microscopy data showed a redistribution of CXCR1 expression from the cell surface of neutrophils to internal compartments after stimulation with IL-8, whereas stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) did not induce CXCR1 internalization but instead mediated a significant loss of membrane-proximal CXCR1 staining intensity. To investigate whether proteolytic cleavage was the mechanism responsible for LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced downmodulation of IL-8 receptors, we tested a panel of proteinase inhibitors. The downmodulation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 by LPS and TNF-alpha was most dramatically inhibited by metalloproteinase inhibitors; 1, 10-phenanthroline and EDTA significantly attenuated LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced loss of CXCR1 and CXCR2 cell surface expression. Metalloproteinase inhibitors also blocked the release of CXCR1 cleavage fragments into the cell supernatants of LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated neutrophils. In addition, while treatment of neutrophils with LPS and TNF-alpha inhibited IL-8 receptor-mediated calcium mobilization and IL-8-directed neutrophil chemotaxis, both 1, 10-phenanthroline and EDTA blocked these inhibitory processes. In contrast, metalloproteinase inhibitors did not affect IL-8-mediated downmodulation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 cell surface expression or receptor signaling. Thus, these findings may provide further insight into the mechanisms of leukocyte regulation during immunologic and inflammatory responses. (+info)
Cleavage of a 23S rRNA pseudoknot by phenanthroline-Cu(II).
Studying the intricate folding of rRNA within the ribosome remains a complex problem. Phenanthroline-Cu(II) complexes cleave phosphodiester bonds in rRNA in specific regions, apparently especially where the rRNA structure is constrained in some fashion. We have introduced phenanthroline-copper complexes into 50S Escherichia coli ribosomal subunits and shown specific cleavages in the regions containing nucleotides 60-66 and 87-100. This specificity of cleavage is reduced when the ribosome is heated to 80 degrees C and reduced to background when the ribosomal proteins are extracted and the cleavage repeated on protein-free 23S rRNA. It has been suggested that nucleotides 60-66 and 87-95 in E.coli 23S rRNA are involved in a putative pseudoknot structure, which is supported by covariance data. The paired cleavages of nearly equal intensity of these two regions, when in the ribosome, may further support the existence of a pseudoknot structure in the 100 region of 23S rRNA. (+info)
The aconitase of yeast. IV. Studies on iron and sulfur in yeast aconitase.
Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the active components of the crystalline aconitase [EC 22.214.171.124] of Candida lipolytica. The enzyme contained 2 atoms of non-heme iron, 1 atom of labile sulfur, and 6 sulfhydryl groups per molecule. One atom of the non-heme iron was released by the addition of metal-chelating agents such as sodium citrate, sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) or sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) without loss of the enzyme activity. The non-heme iron and labile sulfur were released by the addition of sulfhydryl reagents such as rho-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), sodium mersalyl or urea with loss of the enzyme activity. o-Phenanthroline reacted with the iron atoms in the enzyme at pH 6.0 with loss of the activity. These results show that yeast aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein and that only one of the two non-heme iron atoms is essential for enzyme activity. (+info)
Molecular mechanisms of zinc-dependent leukocyte adhesion involving the urokinase receptor and beta2-integrins.
The trace element Zinc (Zn2+) has been implicated as a mediator in host defense, yet the molecular basis for its extracellular functions remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that Zn2+ can induce the adhesion of myelomonocytic cells to the endothelium, as well as to the provisional matrix proteins vitronectin (VN) and fibrinogen (FBG), which are pivotal steps for the recruitment of leukocytes into inflamed/injured tissue. Physiologic concentrations of Zn2+ increased the urokinase receptor (uPAR)-mediated adhesion of myelomonocytic cells to VN, whereas other divalent cations had smaller effects. Zn2+-induced cell adhesion to VN was abolished by cation chelators such as 1-10-phenanthroline, as well as by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against uPAR. These characteristics could be recapitulated with a uPAR-transfected cell line emphasizing the specificity of this receptor system for Zn2+-dependent cell adhesion. Like urokinase (uPA), Zn2+ increased the binding of radiolabeled VN to uPAR-expressing cells, as well as the interaction of VN with immobilized uPAR in an isolated system. Moreover, Zn2+ enhanced leukocytic cell adhesion to FBG and endothelial cell monolayers by activating beta2-integrins. Instead of the direct beta2-integrin activation through the divalent cation binding site, Zn2+-induced integrin activation was mediated via uPAR, a crucial regulator of this system. The present study uncovers for the first time Zn2+-mediated cell adhesion mechanisms that may play a crucial role in modulating leukocyte adhesion to vessel wall components. (+info)
Cytosolic Ca2+ movements of endothelial cells exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates: role of hydroxyl radical-mediated redox alteration of cell-membrane Ca2+ channels.
1. The mode of action of reactive oxygen intermediates in cysosolic Ca2+ movements of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells exposed to xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) was investigated. 2. Cytosolic Ca2+ movements provoked by X/XO consisted of an initial Ca2+ release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and a sustained Ca2+ influx through cell-membrane Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ movements from both sources were inhibited by catalase, cell-membrane permeable iron chelators (o-phenanthroline and deferoxamine), a *OH scavenger (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide), or an anion channel blocker (disodium 4, 4'-diisothiocyano-2, 2'-stilbenedisulphonic acid), suggesting that *O2- influx through anion channels was responsible for the Ca2+ movements, in which *OH generation catalyzed by intracellular transition metals (i.e., Haber-Weiss cycle) was involved. 3. After an initial Ca2+ elevation provoked by X/XO, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration decreased to a level higher than basal levels. Removal of X/XO slightly enhanced the Ca2+ decrease. Extracellular addition of sulphydryl (SH)-reducing agents, dithiothreitol or glutathione, after the removal of X/XO accelerated the decrement. A Ca2+ channel blocker, Ni2+, abolished the sustained increase in Ca2+, suggesting that Ca2+ influx through cell-membrane Ca2+ channels was extracellularly regulated by the redox state of SH-groups. 4. The X/XO-provoked change in cellular respiration was inhibited by Ni2+ or dithiothreitol as well as inhibitors of Haber-Weiss cycle, suggesting that Ca2+ influx was responsible for *OH-mediated cytotoxicity. We concluded that intracellular *OH generation was involved in the Ca2+ movements in endothelial cells exposed to X/XO. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation was partly responsible for the oxidants-mediated cytotoxicity. (+info)