Iron-histidine resonance Raman band of deoxyheme proteins: effects of anharmonic coupling and glass-liquid phase transition.
Weak anharmonic coupling of two soft molecular vibrations is shown to cause pronounced temperature dependence of the corresponding resonance Raman bands. The developed theory is used to interpret the temperature dependence of the iron-histidine band of deoxyheme proteins and model compounds. It is shown that anharmonic coupling of the iron-histidine and heme doming vibrations must cause pronounced broadening of the band, its asymmetry, and shift of its maximum to the red upon heating. It also can lead to a structured shape of this band at room temperature. Proper consideration of the anharmonic coupling allows simulation of the temperature dependence of the iron-histidine band shape of horse heart myoglobin in the temperature interval of 10-300 K, using the minimum number of necessary parameters. Analysis of this temperature dependence clearly shows that the iron-histidine band of deoxyheme proteins is sensitive to the glass-liquid phase transition in the protein hydration shell, which takes place at 160-190 K. (+info)
Ice premelting during differential scanning calorimetry.
Premelting at the surface of ice crystals is caused by factors such as temperature, radius of curvature, and solute composition. When polycrystalline ice samples are warmed from well below the equilibrium melting point, surface melting may begin at temperatures as low as -15 degrees C. However, it has been reported (Bronshteyn and Steponkus, 1993. Biophys. J. 65:1853-1865) that when polycrystalline ice was warmed in a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) pan, melting began at about -50 degrees C, this extreme behavior being attributed to short-range forces. We show that there is no driving force for such premelting, and that for pure water samples in DSC pans curvature effects will cause premelting typically at just a few degrees below the equilibrium melting point. We also show that the rate of warming affects the slope of the DSC baseline and that this might be incorrectly interpreted as an endotherm. The work has consequences for DSC operators who use water as a standard in systems where subfreezing runs are important. (+info)
Different modulation of phospholipase A2 activity by saturated and monounsaturated N-acylethanolamines.
The physiological functions of N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are poorly understood, although many functions were suggested for these naturally occurring membrane components of plants and animals. The binding with cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 was demonstrated for some NAEs, such as anandamide. However, the chemical nature of these molecules suggests that some of their biological effects on biomembranes could be related, at least partially, to physical interactions with the lipid bilayer. The present work studies the effect of saturated and monounsaturated NAEs on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which is dependent on lipid bilayer features. The present study, performed by 2-dimethylamino-(6-lauroyl)-naphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence, demonstrates that the acyl chain length and the presence of a single double bond are crucial for the enzymatic activity modulation by NAEs. In fact, saturated NAEs with 10 carbon atoms don't affect the PLA2 activity, while NAEs with 12 and 16 carbon atoms largely activate the enzyme. On the other hand, an acyl chain length of 18 carbon atoms, with or without the presence of a double bond, only slightly affects the enzymatic activity. A structural model for NAE-lipid interactions is proposed in order to explain the differences in PLA2 activity modulation by these fatty acid derivatives. (+info)
Trehalose maintains phase separation in an air-dried binary lipid mixture.
Mixing and thermal behavior of hydrated and air-dried mixtures of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-d70-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPCd-70) in the absence and presence of trehalose were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mixtures of DLPC:DSPCd-70 (1:1) that were air-dried at 25 degrees C show multiple phase transitions and mixed phases in the dry state. After annealing at high temperatures, however, only one transition is seen during cooling scans. When dried in the presence of trehalose, the DLPC component shows two phase transitions at -22 degrees C and 75 degrees C and is not fully solidified at -22 degrees C. The DSPCd-70 component, however, shows a single phase transition at 78 degrees C. The temperatures of these transitions are dramatically reduced after annealing at high temperatures with trehalose. The data suggest that the sugar has a fluidizing effect on the DLPC component during drying and that this effect becomes stronger for both components with heating. Examination of infrared bands arising from the lipid phosphate and sugar hydroxyl groups suggests that the strong effect of trehalose results from direct interactions between lipid headgroups and the sugar and that these interactions become stronger after heating. The findings are discussed in terms of the protective effect of trehalose on dry membranes. (+info)
The effect of cholesterol on the lateral diffusion of phospholipids in oriented bilayers.
Pulsed field gradient NMR was utilized to directly determine the lipid lateral diffusion coefficient for the following macroscopically aligned bilayers: dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), sphingomyelin (SM), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) with addition of cholesterol (CHOL) up to approximately 40 mol %. The observed effect of cholesterol on the lipid lateral diffusion is interpreted in terms of the different diffusion coefficients obtained in the liquid ordered (l(o)) and the liquid disordered (l(d)) phases occurring in the phase diagrams. Generally, the lipid lateral diffusion coefficient decreases linearly with increasing CHOL concentration in the l(d) phase for the PC-systems, while it is almost independent of CHOL for the SM-system. In this region the temperature dependence of the diffusion was always of the Arrhenius type with apparent activation energies (E(A)) in the range of 28-40 kJ/mol. The l(o) phase was characterized by smaller diffusion coefficients and weak or no dependence on the CHOL content. The E(A) for this phase was significantly larger (55-65 kJ/mol) than for the l(d) phase. The diffusion coefficients in the two-phase regions were compatible with a fast exchange between the l(d) and l(o) regions in the bilayer on the timescale of the NMR experiment (100 ms). Thus, strong evidence has been obtained that fluid domains (with size of micro m or less) with high molecular ordering are formed within a single lipid bilayer. These domains may play an important role for proteins involved in membrane functioning frequently discussed in the recent literature. The phase diagrams obtained from the analysis of the diffusion data are in qualitative agreement with earlier published ones for the SM/CHOL and DMPC/CHOL systems. For the DOPC/CHOL and the POPC/CHOL systems no two-phase behavior were observed, and the obtained E(A):s indicate that these systems are in the l(d) phase at all CHOL contents for temperatures above 25 degrees C. (+info)
Mechanism of the lamellar/inverse hexagonal phase transition examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction.
For the first time the electron density of the lamellar liquid crystalline as well as of the inverted hexagonal phase could be retrieved at the transition temperature. A reliable decomposition of the d-spacings into hydrophobic and hydrophilic structure elements could be performed owing to the presence of a sufficient number of reflections. While the hydrocarbon chain length, d(C), in the lamellar phase with a value of 14.5 A lies within the extreme limits of the estimated chain length of the inverse hexagonal phase 10 A < d(C) < 16 A, the changes in the hydrophilic region vary strongly. During the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition the area per lipid molecule reduces by approximately 25%, and the number of water molecules per lipid increases from 14 to 18. On the basis of the analysis of the structural components of each phase, the interface between the coexisting mesophases between 66 and 84 degrees C has been examined in detail, and a model for the formation of the first rods in the matrix of the lamellar phospholipid stack is discussed. Judging from the structural relations between the inverse hexagonal and the lamellar phase, we suggest a cooperative chain reaction of rod formation at the transition midpoint, which is mainly driven by minimizing the interstitial region. (+info)
Interaction between artificial membranes and enflurane, a general volatile anesthetic: DPPC-enflurane interaction.
The structural modifications of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) organization induced by increasing concentration of the volatile anesthetic enflurane have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle, and wide-angle x-ray scattering. The interaction of enflurane with DPPC depends on at least two factors: the enflurane-to-lipid concentration ratio and the initial organization of the lipids. At 25 degrees C (gel state), the penetration of enflurane within the lipids induces the apparition of two different mixed lipid phases. At low anesthetic-to-lipid molar ratio, the smectic distance increases whereas the direction of the chain tilt changes from a tilt toward next-neighbors to a tilt between next-neighbors creating a new gel phase called L(beta')(2NNN). At high ratio, the smectic distance is much smaller than for the pure L(beta') DPPC phase, i.e., 50 A compared to 65 A, the aliphatic chains are perpendicular to the membrane and the fusion temperature of the phase is 33 degrees C. The electron profile of this phase that has been called L(beta)(i), indicates that the lipids are fully interdigitated. At 45 degrees C (fluid state), a new melted phase, called L(alpha)(2), was found, in which the smectic distance decreased compared to the initial pure L(alpha)(1) DPPC phase. The thermotropic behavior of the mixed phases has also been characterized by simultaneous x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry measurements using the Microcalix calorimeter of our own. Finally, titration curves of enflurane effect in the mixed lipidic phase has been obtained by using the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan. Measurements as a function of temperature or at constant temperature, i.e., 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C give, for the maximal effect, an enflurane-to-lipid ratio (M/M), within the membrane, of 1 and 2 for the L(alpha)(2) and the L(beta)(i) lamellar phase respectively. All the results taken together allowed to draw a pseudo-binary phase diagram of enflurane-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in excess water. (+info)
Rationalization of membrane protein crystallization with polyethylene glycol using a simple depletion model.
Based on the importance of crystallizing membrane proteins in a rational way, cytochrome bc(1) complex (BC1) was crystallized using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a sole crystallization agent. Interaction between protein-detergent complexes of BC1 was estimated by dynamic light scattering, and was compared with the numerical calculation using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential plus a depletion potential, without considering specific surface properties of the protein-detergent complexes. The experiments and calculation were found to be consistent and we obtained a relation between PEG molecular weight M and the range of depletion zone delta as delta approximately M(0.48+/-0.02). The stability of liquid phase of BC1 solutions was controlled by a ratio of (the range of depletion zone)/(the radius of a BC1 particle), which was consistent with recent theoretical predictions. The crystallization was most successful under a condition where the stability of the liquid phase changed from stable to unstable. The PEG molecular weight that fulfilled this condition coincided with the one used empirically to crystallize BC1 in the past by a number of groups. These results are compared to the fact that membrane proteins were often successfully crystallized close to the detergent cloud point. (+info)