Time trends in the mortality rates for tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx in Japan, 1950-94.
Mortality data of oral cancer over 40 years in Japan were analyzed to investigate time trends of the disease site-specifically and discuss the relation between these trends and the changing patterns of consumption of tobacco and alcohol beverages. Mortality rates were adjusted to the world standard population. In the males, overall oral cancer (ICD-9: 141-149) mortality rates have increased consistently from the lowest value of 1.25 (per 100,000 per year) in 1956 to 2.40 in 1992. The rates for females were constantly lower than those for males, and formed a modest peak of 0.96 in 1979. Regarding site-specific mortality rates, tongue cancer (141) presented a decreasing trend, while oro/hypopharyngeal (146, 148) and mouth (143-145) cancers showed increasing patterns, particularly in males. When the changing patterns of male truncated rates for ages 35-64 were compared with those of the annual consumption of cigarette and alcohol per capita, the time trend of oro/hypopharyngeal cancer mortality was analogous to cigarette consumption rather than to alcohol consumption, mouth cancer vice versa, and tongue cancer was not related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. The present findings suggest that tobacco and alcohol have different site-specific effects on the development of cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx. (+info)
Food groups, oils and butter, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx.
To elucidate the role of dietary habits, a study was carried out in 1992-1997 in the province of Pordenone in Northeastern Italy, and those of Rome and Latina in central Italy. Cases were 512 men and 86 women with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (lip, salivary glands and nasopharynx excluded) and controls were 1008 men and 483 women who had been admitted to local hospitals for a broad range of acute non-neoplastic conditions. The validated dietary section of the questionnaire included 78 foods or recipes and ten questions on fat intake patterns. After allowance for education, smoking, alcohol and total energy intake, significant trends of increasing risk with increasing intake emerged for soups, eggs, processed meats, cakes and desserts, and butter. Risk was approximately halved in the highest compared to the lowest intake quintile for coffee and tea, white bread, poultry, fish, raw and cooked vegetables, citrus fruit, and olive oil. The inverse association with oils, especially olive oil, was only slightly attenuated by allowance for vegetable intake. Thus, frequent consumption of vegetables, citrus fruit, fish and vegetable oils were the major features of a low-risk diet for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. (+info)
Determinants of paclitaxel penetration and accumulation in human solid tumor.
The present study examined the determinants of the penetration and accumulation of [(3)H]paclitaxel (12-12,000 nM) in three-dimensional histocultures of patient tumors and of a human xenograft tumor in mice. The results showed 1) significant and saturable drug accumulation in tumors, 2) extensive drug retention in tumors, and 3) a slower penetration but a more extensive accumulation in the xenograft tumor compared with patient tumors. Drug penetration was not rate-limited by drug diffusion from medium through the matrix supporting the histocultures. The difference in the expression of the mdr1 P-glycoprotein did not fully account for the difference in the drug accumulation in xenograft and patient tumors. Autoradiography and imaging were used to evaluate the spatial relationship between tumor architecture, tumor cell distribution, and drug distribution as a function of time and initial drug concentration in culture medium. The tumor cell density and the kinetics of drug-induced apoptosis were also evaluated. The results indicate that a high tumor cell density is a barrier to paclitaxel penetration and that the apoptotic effect of paclitaxel enhances its penetration in solid tumor. These factors are responsible for the time- and concentration-dependent drug penetration rate, with drug penetration confined to the periphery until apoptosis and reduction of epithelial cell density occurred at 24 h, after which time paclitaxel penetrated the inner parts of the tumor. (+info)
First year after head and neck cancer: quality of life.
PURPOSE: Treatment regimens for head and neck cancer patients profoundly affect several quality-of-life domains. Rehabilitative needs have been identified through cross-sectional analyses; however, few studies have prospectively assessed quality of life, included assessment of psychosocial variables, and identified predictors of long-term follow-up. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The present study addresses these limitations through a prospective assessment of 105 patients with a newly diagnosed first primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx. Participants were enrolled onto a larger randomized controlled trial comparing a provider-delivered smoking cessation intervention with a usual-care-advice control condition. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures after diagnosis and before treatment and additional quality-of-life instruments at 1 and 12 months after initial smoking cessation advice. RESULTS: Participants displayed improvements at 12 months in functional status (P = .006) and in the areas of eating, diet, and speech; however, the latter three represent areas of continued dysfunction, and the changes were not statistically significant. Despite these improvements, patients reported a decline in certain quality-of-life domains, including marital (P = .002) and sexual functioning (P = .017), as well as an increase in alcohol use (P < .001). Predictors of quality of life at 12 months included treatment type, the Vigor subscale of the Profile of Mood States instrument, and quality-of-life scores obtained 1 month after initial smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSION: Results reinforce the need for rehabilitation management through the integration of psychologic and behavioral interventions in medical follow-up. (+info)
Cemento-ossifying fibroma presenting as a mass of the parapharyngeal and masticator space.
We report a case of cemento-ossifying fibroma that presented as a large extraosseous mass in the masticator and parapharyngeal space. CT scanning and MR imaging showed a large extraosseous mass with central conglomerated, well-matured ossified nodules and fatty marrow. The central matured ossified nodules were of low density on CT scans and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. Multiplanar reformatted CT scans revealed the origin of the mass to be at the extraction site of the right lower second molar tooth. (+info)
Human leukocyte antigen class I expression on squamous cell carcinoma cells regulates natural killer cell activity.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on hematopoietic cancers and melanomas inhibit attack by natural killer lymphocytes, but previous studies have not consistently demonstrated that carcinoma cells are protected by HLA class I expression. We investigated whether HLA class I molecules protect oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells from natural killer lymphocyte attack. Squamous cell carcinoma cell lines expressed varying levels of HLA class I, which correlated inversely with cytolysis by natural killer-enriched polyclonal lymphocytes. Cytolysis was increased by the presence of anti-HLA class I blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb). Subclones of the NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cell line were derived by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and limiting dilution cloning. NK-92 subclones expressed distinct sets of HLA class I-specific receptors. Some NK-92 subclones differentially lysed hematopoietic cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells, even in the presence of anti-HLA class I blocking mAb. This suggests that natural killer cells recognize different non-HLA ligands on hematopoietic and squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the presence of anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibody, other NK-92 subclones increased cytolysis of squamous cell carcinoma cells with moderate-to-high HLA class I levels. Anti-HLA class I mAb also increased natural killer cell attack of squamous cell carcinoma cells that were adherent to plastic. These data suggest that natural killer cell recognition of squamous cell carcinoma cells depends upon the balance of stimulatory and inhibitory ligands. (+info)
Interaction between tobacco and alcohol consumption and the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Brazil.
The authors investigated the joint effects of tobacco and alcohol consumption on the risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) using data from a hospital-based case-control study conducted in southern Brazil, 1986-1989. A total of 784 cases of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx and 1,578 non-cancer controls matched on age, sex, hospital catchment area, and period of admission were interviewed about their smoking and drinking habits and other characteristics. Using logistic regression, evidence was found for interaction between the cumulative exposures for smoking and alcohol on UADT cancer risk. The joint effects for pharyngeal cancers exceeded the levels expected under a multiplicative model for moderate smokers (p = 0.007). There was little statistical evidence, however, for interaction on cancers of the mouth (p = 0.28) or larynx (p = 0.95). Among never smokers, heavy drinkers had 9.2 times (95% confidence interval 1.7, 48.5) greater risk of cancers of mouth, pharynx, and supraglottis than never drinkers, with a dose-response trend (p = 0.013) with cumulative consumption. The authors conclude that the interaction occurring in the pharynx between smoking and alcohol on UADT cancers is not uniform, with varying effects depending on the level of smoking exposure. Alcohol may act as both a promoter for tobacco and as an independent risk factor. (+info)
Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer in women: a study from Italy and Switzerland.
We analysed two case-control studies of women from Italy and Switzerland, including 195 cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers and 1113 controls. The multivariate odds ratio was 4.6 for heavy smokers and 2.7 for high alcohol intake. Vegetables, fruit, beta-carotene and wholegrain foods were inversely, butter and retinol directly, related to risk. (+info)