Vagal afferents and active upper airway closure during pulmonary edema in lambs.
The present study was undertaken to gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the sustained active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during high-permeability pulmonary edema in lambs. The experiments were conducted in nonsedated lambs, in which airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activity were recorded. We first studied the consequences of hemodynamic pulmonary edema (induced by impeding pulmonary venous return) on upper airway dynamics in five lambs; under this condition, a sustained expiratory upper airway closure consistently appeared. We then tested whether expiratory upper airway closure was related to vagal afferent activity from bronchopulmonary receptors. Five bivagotomized lambs underwent high-permeability pulmonary edema: no sustained expiratory upper airway closure was observed. Finally, we studied whether a sustained decrease in lung volume induced a sustained expiratory upper airway closure. Five lambs underwent a 250-ml pleural infusion: no sustained expiratory upper airway closure was observed. We conclude that 1) the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during pulmonary edema in nonsedated lambs is related to stimulation of vagal afferents by an increase in lung water and 2) a decrease in lung volume does not seem to be the causal factor. (+info)
Electromyographic activity from human laryngeal, pharyngeal, and submental muscles during swallowing.
The durations and temporal relationships of electromyographic activity from the submental complex, superior pharyngeal constrictor, cricopharyngeus, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles were examined during swallowing of saliva and of 5- and 10-ml water boluses. Bipolar, hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into all muscles except for the submental complex, which was studied with bipolar surface electrodes. Eight healthy, normal, subjects produced five swallows of each of three bolus volumes for a total of 120 swallows. The total duration of electromyographic activity during the pharyngeal stage of the swallow did not alter with bolus condition; however, specific muscles did show a volume-dependent change in electromyograph duration and time of firing. Submental muscle activity was longest for saliva swallows. The interarytenoid muscle showed a significant difference in duration between the saliva and 10-ml water bolus. Finally, the interval between the onset of laryngeal muscle activity (thyroarytenoid, interarytenoid) and of pharyngeal muscle firing patterns (superior pharyngeal constrictor onset, cricopharyngeus offset) decreased as bolus volume increased. The pattern of muscle activity associated with the swallow showed a high level of intrasubject agreement; the presence of somewhat different patterns among subjects indicated a degree of population variance. (+info)
Differential effects of clonidine on upper airway abductor and adductor muscle activity in awake goats.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2)-AR) pathways affect the central motor output to upper airway muscles that regulate airflow. Electromyogram (EMG) measurements were made from posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA), cricothyroid (CT), thyroarytenoid (TA), and middle (MPC) and inferior (IPC) pharyngeal constrictor muscles in awake standing goats. Systemic administration of the alpha(2)-AR agonist clonidine induced a highly dysrhythmic pattern of ventilation in all animals that was characterized by alternating episodes of tachypnea and slow irregular breathing patterns, including prolonged and variable expiratory time intervals. Periods of apnea were commonly observed. Dysrhythmic ventilatory patterns induced by clonidine were associated with differential recruitment of upper airway muscles. alpha(2)-AR stimulation preferentially decreased the activity of the PCA, CT, and IPC muscles while increasing TA and MPC EMG activities. Clonidine-induced apneas were associated with continuous tonic activation of laryngeal (TA) and pharyngeal (MPC) adductors, leading to airway closure and arterial oxygen desaturation. Tonic activation of the TA and MPC muscles was interrupted only during the first inspiratory efforts after central apnea. Laryngeal abductor, diaphragm, and transversus abdominis EMG activities were completely silenced during apneic events. Ventilatory and EMG effects were reversed by selective alpha(2)-AR blockade with SKF-86466. The results demonstrate that alpha(2)-AR pathways are important modulators of central respiratory motor outputs to the upper airway muscles. (+info)
Effect of wake-sleep transitions and rapid eye movement sleep on pharyngeal muscle response to negative pressure in humans.
1. Genioglossus (GG) activation in response to upper airway negative pressure may be an important mechanism in the maintenance of airway patency. This reflex occurs during wakefulness but is diminished during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Since obstructive events occur more commonly at wake-sleep transitions and during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during stable NREM sleep, we assessed the GG reflex during these two vulnerable states. 2. Seventeen healthy adults were studied throughout one evening and overnight. Electroencephalograms (EEGs), electro-oculograms (EOGs), submental electromyogram (EMG), GG EMG (intramuscular electrodes), and choanal plus epiglottic pressures were recorded. The GG reflex response to pulses of -8 cmH2O choanal pressure applied via nose mask during early inspiration was quantified repeatedly during relaxed wakefulness, within five breaths of wake-sleep transition (EEG alpha-theta transition) and during REM sleep. Only trials without EEG arousal were analysed, resulting in data from 14 subjects during sleep onset and 10 subjects during REM sleep (overall, 174-491 trials per state). 3. During wakefulness there was brisk GG reflex activation in response to negative pressure (amplitude: +78.5 +/- 28.3 % baseline (mean +/- s.e.m.); latency to maximal response: 177 +/- 16 ms). 4. At sleep onset, although there was marked variability among individuals, there was no significant reduction in the magnitude of the GG reflex for the group as a whole (amplitude: +33.2 +/- 8.2 % baseline; latency: 159 +/- 15 ms). 5. In contrast, during REM sleep there was a reduction of GG reflex (amplitude: -12.6 +/- 8.3 % baseline (P = 0.017 vs. awake); latency: 160 +/- 10 ms (n.s. vs. awake)) and greater airway collapsibility during the applied pressures (P = 0.043 vs. awake). 6. We conclude that there was no systematic reduction in the GG reflex to negative pressure at sleep onset. Nonetheless, it remains possible that sleep-deprived normal subjects and patients with sleep apnoea could react differently. 7. The apparent inhibition of the GG reflex during REM sleep may help explain why the upper airway is vulnerable to collapse during this state. (+info)
A mutation in the C. elegans EXP-2 potassium channel that alters feeding behavior.
The nematode pharynx has a potassium channel with unusual properties, which allows the muscles to repolarize quickly and with the proper delay. Here, the Caenorhabditis elegans exp-2 gene is shown to encode this channel. EXP-2 is a Kv-type (voltage-activated) potassium channel that has inward-rectifying properties resembling those of the structurally dissimilar human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel. Null and gain-of-function mutations affect pharyngeal muscle excitability in ways that are consistent with the electrophysiological behavior of the channel, and thereby demonstrate a direct link between the kinetics of this unusual channel and behavior. (+info)
Reciprocal activation of hypopharyngeal muscles and their effect on upper airway area.
We examined in awake goats, 1) with intact upper airways (UAW), the effect of altering chemical drive on pharyngeal constrictors [thyropharyngeus (TP) and hypopharyngeus (HP)] and a dilator [stylopharyngeus (SP)], and 2) with an isolated UAW, the effect of activation of these muscles on supraglottic UAW (UAW(SG)) area. During eupnea in nine goats with intact UAW, the TP and HP were active during expiration, whereas the SP exhibited tonic expiratory and phasic inspiratory activity. After mechanically induced apneas (MIA), TP activity increased (263%, P < 0.02), HP activity exhibited a small, varied response, and SP activity greatly decreased (10%, P < 0.02). During resumption of respiratory effort, all goats exhibited absent/reduced airflow, and when diaphragm activity was 95% of control, TP activity remained elevated (135%) and SP activity was reduced (56%, P < 0.02). During hypercapnia, 1) TP activity decreased (P < 0.02), 2) HP response varied, and 3) SP activity increased (P < 0.02). After MIA in six goats with isolated UAW, TP activity increased 198% (P < 0.02) and UAW(SG) area (endoscopically determined) decreased (to 15% of control, P < 0.02). During recovery from MIA, a correlation was found between UAW(SG) area and the ratio of SP to TP activity. We conclude that the reciprocal activation of mechanically opposing dilator and constrictor muscles in the hypopharynx is correlated to changes in the UAW(SG) area, and an imbalance in activity of these opposing muscles can lead to UAW(SG) narrowing. (+info)
Isotonic mechanics of a pharyngeal dilator muscle and diaphragm in the rat before and after fatigue.
Pharyngeal and diaphragm muscles contract and relax in synergy, which is why it was decided to compare their mechanical performance throughout the overall load continuum. The effects of fatigue were also studied. The isotonic mechanics of rat sternohyoid (SH; n=10) and diaphragm (D; n=10) were investigated in vitro. Force and length were measured in muscles contracting from zero load up to isometry. Maximum isometric tension (Pmax), peak mechanical work (Wmax), maximum unloaded shortening velocity (vzL) and mechanical efficiency (eff(max)) were recorded. Data were obtained both at baseline and after fatigue. SH muscles had a lower Pmax (96.0+/-13.7 versus 119.5+/-22.7 mN x mm(-2); p<0.05), a lower Wmax (5.5+/-1.2 versus 8.0+/-2.1 mJ x g(-1); p<0.01), a lower eff(max) (56.0+/-6.9 versus 62.6+/-5.8%; p<0.05) and a higher vzL (4.8+/-0.4 versus 3.4+/-0.4 initial length (L0) x s(-1); p<0.001) than D muscles. Wmax occurred at a higher relative load in SH (40% Pmax) than in D (30% Pmax). Fatigue did not modify eff(max) in SH muscles, whereas it significantly improved eff(max) in D muscles. These findings suggest that under control conditions, economy of force generation was less efficient in sternohyoid than in diaphragm muscles. Fatigue in sternohyoid muscles induced unfavourable mechanical behaviour. This may partly explain pharyngeal dilator muscle failure in the presence of increased loads. Whether these findings are relevant to human sleep apnoea syndrome has yet to be determined. (+info)
The incidence and mechanisms of pharyngeal and upper esophageal dysfunction in partially paralyzed humans: pharyngeal videoradiography and simultaneous manometry after atracurium.
BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular block caused by vecuronium alters pharyngeal function and impairs airway protection. The primary objectives of this investigation were to radiographically evaluate the swallowing act and to record the incidence of and the mechanism behind pharyngeal dysfunction during partial neuromuscular block. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of atracurium on pharyngeal function. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were studied while awake during liquid-contrast bolus swallowing. The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was studied by fluoroscopy. The initiation of the swallowing process, the pharyngeal coordination, and the bolus transit time were evaluated. Simultaneous manometry was used to document pressure changes at the tongue base, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the upper esophageal sphincter. After control recordings, an intravenous infusion of atracurium was administered to obtain train-of-four ratios (T4/T1) of 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, followed by recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90. RESULTS: The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was 6% during the control recordings and increased (P < 0.05) to 28%, 17%, and 20% at train-of-four ratios 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, respectively. After recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90, the incidence was 13%. Pharyngeal dysfunction occurred in 74 of 444 swallows, the majority (80%) resulting in laryngeal penetration. The initiation of the swallowing reflex was impaired during partial paralysis (P = 0.0081). The pharyngeal coordination was impaired at train-of-four ratios of 0.60 and 0.70 (P < 0.01). A marked reduction in the upper esophageal sphincter resting tone was found, as well as a reduced contraction force in the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. The bolus transit time did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Partial neuromuscular paralysis caused by atracurium is associated with a four- to fivefold increase in the incidence of misdirected swallowing. The mechanism behind the pharyngeal dysfunction is a delayed initiation of the swallowing reflex, impaired pharyngeal muscle function, and impaired coordination. The majority of misdirected swallows resulted in penetration of bolus to the larynx. (+info)