A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers in rat lungs.
A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers (MMFs) was developed, and the calculated fiber numbers and dimensions were compared with the experimental ones using a glass fiber (GF), ceramic fiber (RF1) and two potassium octatitanate whiskers (PT1, TW). If the translocation rate by macrophages is constant and the effect of dissolution and disintegration can be ignored, the fiber number is expected to decrease exponentially with time. In the experimental study, however, the fiber number did not always decrease exponentially. In the case of RF1, the fiber number decreased almost exponentially and the diameter decreased linearly with the time. The clearance rate constant of GF during 3 to 6 months after the end of one-month exposure was greater than that during 1 to 3 months. On the contrary, the clearance rate constants of PT1 and TW during 1 to 6 months were greater than next six months. The diameter and the length of GF did not change significantly. The fiber length of PT1 tends to become longer with time although the diameter did not change significantly. Our theoretical model gives a satisfactory fit to these experimental results. (+info)
The rhesus macaque as an animal model for hemophilia B gene therapy.
We have determined the 2905 nucleotide sequence of the rhesus macaque factor IX complementary DNA (cDNA) and found it to be greater than 95% identical to that of the human factor IX cDNA. The cDNA has a large 3' untranslated region like the human cDNA, but unlike the human cDNA has two polyadenylation sites 224 nucleotides apart that are used for transcription of the messenger RNA. The deduced amino acid sequence is greater than 97% identical to that of human factor IX, differing in only 11 of 461 amino acids in the complete precursor protein. We found a single silent polymorphism in the nucleotide sequence at the third position of the codon for asparagine at position 167 in the secreted protein (AAC/AAT). All residues subject to posttranslational modifications in the human protein are also found in the rhesus factor IX sequence. The high degree of homology between the rhesus and human factor IX proteins suggested the possibility that the human factor IX protein might be nonimmunogenic in the rhesus. We tested the immunogenicity of human factor IX in three rhesus macaques by repeated intravenous injections of monoclonal antibody-purified, plasma-derived human factor IX over the course of more than a year and assessed the recovery and half-life of the infused protein, as well as in vitro indicators of antihuman factor IX antibodies. Human factor IX recovery and half-life remained unchanged over the course of a year in the three animals studied, and aPTT mixing studies showed no evidence for neutralizing antihuman factor IX antibodies. An outbred, nonhuman primate model that permits assessment of the level and duration of factor IX expression as well as vector safety would complement the use of other (mouse and canine) hemophilia B animal models in current use for the development of gene therapy for hemophilia B. (+info)
Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients.
Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients. (+info)
A pilot study to determine the usefulness of the urinary excretion of methadone and its primary metabolite (EDDP) as potential markers of compliance in methadone detoxification programs.
Fourteen subjects (selected on the basis of compliance with the methadone-maintenance program prescribed by the consultant psychiatrist in charge of their treatment) undergoing opiate detoxification by methadone-replacement therapy were studied to determine if a relationship exists between the dose of methadone prescribed and the urinary excretion of methadone and/or its primary metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). After the derivation of this relationship, it was hoped that the urinary concentrations of methadone and/or EDDP could be used as a noninvasive technique to monitor the methadone compliance of 56 drug abusers. Despite statistically significant correlations (p<0.001) between methadone dose and urine concentrations of methadone and EDDP, the large variation in concentrations measured in the urine of drug abusers negated the possibility of any clear-cut relationship being confirmed. However, it may be possible to use excretion data to monitor individual compliance but only through long-term monitoring of individual subjects to establish their own intraindividual variation in excretion patterns. (+info)
Target concentration intervention (TCI) is proposed as an alternative conceptual strategy to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It is argued that the idea of a therapeutic range has limited the interpretation of measured drug concentrations and diminished the anticipated clinical benefit to patients by use of an oversimplified pharmacodynamic model. TCI on the other hand embraces pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts and uses the idea of a target effect and associated target concentration to make rational individual dose decisions. (+info)
A new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom for treatment of envenoming by the Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia Russelii Russelii): a preliminary dose-finding and pharmacokinetic study.
Russell's viper is the most important cause of life-threatening snake bite and acute renal failure in Sri Lanka. Only equine polyspecific antivenoms imported from India are available. They have not proved effective clinically or in clearing venom antigenemia and they frequently cause reactions. In an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity, a new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom (PolongaTab; Therapeutic Antibodies, Inc., London, United Kingdom) was raised against Sri Lankan Russell's viper venom. In a preliminary dose-finding study in 35 patients, an initial dose of 3-4 g restored blood coagulability permanently and stopped systemic bleeding, even in severely envenomed patients. Venom antigenemia disappeared within 1 hr of antivenom treatment but recurred, probably as a result of continued absorption of venom from the site of the bite, after the rapid clearance of therapeutic antibody. Twelve patients (34%) experienced early reactions that were usually mild and always responded to epinephrine. (+info)
Prediction of human clearance of twenty-nine drugs from hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance data: An examination of in vitro half-life approach and nonspecific binding to microsomes.
Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacologic study of oral (PEG-1000) 9-aminocamptothecin in adult patients with solid tumors.
PURPOSE: 9-Amino-20(S)-camptothecin (9-AC) is a specific inhibitor of topoisomerase-I. Recently, a bioavailability of approximately 48% for the oral PEG-1000 formulation was reported. We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral PEG-1000 formulation of 9-AC to define the maximum-tolerated dose, toxicity profiles, pharmacokinetic-dynamic relationships, and preliminary antitumor activity in patients with solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated with oral (PEG-1000) 9-AC given once a day for 7 or 14 days at doses ranging from 0.25 to 1.1 mg/m(2)/d; cycles were repeated every 21 days. For pharmacokinetic analysis, plasma sampling was performed on days 1 and 6 or 8 of the first course using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. RESULTS: Thirty patients were entered onto the study; three patients were not assessable for toxicity and response. Twenty-seven patients received a total of 89 courses. The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were myelosuppression and diarrhea at a dose of 1.1 mg/m(2)/d for 14 days. Pharmacokinetics showed a substantial interpatient variation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of 9-AC. The intrapatient variability was extremely small. A significant correlation was observed between the percentage decrease in WBC count and the AUC of 9-AC lactone (r(2) = 0.86). One partial response was noted in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: DLTs in this phase I study of oral 9-AC daily for 14 days every 21 days were myelosuppression and diarrhea. The recommended dose for phase II studies is 0.84 mg/m(2)/d. In view of the substantial interpatient variability in AUC and the availability of a limited sampling model, a pharmacokinetic guided phase II study should be considered. (+info)