Genetic diversity of pestiviruses: identification of novel groups and implications for classification.
The complete Npro coding sequences were determined for 16 pestiviruses isolated from cattle, pig, and several wild ruminant species including reindeer, bison, deer, and bongo. Phylogenetic analysis enabled the segregation of pestiviruses into the established species bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). For BVDV-1 five distinct subgroups were identified, while BVDV-2, BDV, and CSFV were each subdivided into two subgroups. The virus isolates from bongo and deer as well as one porcine virus isolate belong to BVDV-1. Interestingly, the isolates from reindeer and bison are distinct from the established pestivirus species. The Npro sequences from these two viruses are more similar to BDV than to the other pestivirus species. Calculation of the pairwise evolutionary distances allowed a clear separation of the categories species, subgroup, and isolate only when the reindeer/bison viruses were considered as members of an additional pestivirus species. Furthermore, the entire E2 coding sequences of a representative set of virus isolates covering all recognized species and subgroups were studied. Segregation of pestiviruses based on the E2 region was identical with that obtained with the N(pro) sequences. (+info)
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a virus type-specific peptide based on a subdomain of envelope protein E(rns) for serologic diagnosis of pestivirus infections in swine.
Peptides deduced from the C-terminal end (residues 191 to 227) of pestivirus envelope protein E(rns) were used to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure specifically antibodies against different types of pestiviruses. The choice of the peptide was based on the modular structure of the E(rns) protein, and the peptide was selected for its probable independent folding and good exposure, which would make it a good candidate for an antigenic peptide to be used in a diagnostic test. A solid-phase peptide ELISA which was cross-reactive for several types of pestivirus antibodies and which can be used for the general detection of pestivirus antibodies was developed. To identify type-specific pestivirus antibodies, a liquid-phase peptide ELISA, with a labeled, specific classical swine fever virus (CSFV) peptide and an unlabeled bovine viral diarrhea virus peptide to block cross-reactivity, was developed. Specificity and sensitivity of the liquid-phase peptide ELISA for CSFV were 98 and 100%, respectively. Because the peptide is a fragment of the E(rns) protein, it can be used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals when a vaccine based on the E2 protein, which is another pestivirus envelope protein, is used. (+info)
A cellular J-domain protein modulates polyprotein processing and cytopathogenicity of a pestivirus.
Pestiviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses closely related to human hepatitis C virus. Gene expression of these viruses occurs via translation of a polyprotein, which is further processed by cellular and viral proteases. Here we report the formation of a stable complex between an as-yet-undescribed cellular J-domain protein, a member of the DnaJ-chaperone family, and pestiviral nonstructural protein NS2. Accordingly, we termed the cellular protein Jiv, for J-domain protein interacting with viral protein. Jiv has the potential to induce in trans one specific processing step in the viral polyprotein, namely, cleavage of NS2-3. Efficient generation of its cleavage product NS3 has previously been shown to be obligatory for the cytopathogenicity of the pestiviruses. Regulated expression of Jiv in cells infected with noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus disclosed a direct correlation between the intracellular level of Jiv, the extent of NS2-3 cleavage, and pestiviral cytopathogenicity. (+info)
The carboxy-terminal sequence of the pestivirus glycoprotein E(rns) represents an unusual type of membrane anchor.
The E(rns) protein is a structural glycoprotein of pestiviruses that lacks a typical membrane anchor sequence and is known to be secreted from the infected cell. However, major amounts of the protein are retained within the cell and attached to the virion by a so far unknown mechanism. Transient-expression studies with cDNA constructs showed that in a steady-state situation, 16% of the protein is found in the supernatant of the transfected cells while 84% appears as intracellular protein. We show here that E(rns) represents a membrane-bound protein. Membrane binding occurs via the carboxy-terminal region of E(rns). By fusion of this sequence to the carboxy terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP), the subcellular localization of the reporter protein switched from cytosolic to membrane bound. A core sequence of 11 amino acids necessary for membrane binding was elicited in truncation experiments with GFP constructs. However, this peptide is not sufficient to confer membrane anchoring but needs either upstream or downstream accessory sequences. Analyses with different extraction procedures showed that E(rns) is neither easily stripped from the membrane, like a peripheral membrane protein, nor as tightly membrane bound as a transmembrane protein. (+info)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus: prevention of persistent fetal infection by a combination of two mutations affecting Erns RNase and Npro protease.
Different genetically engineered mutants of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were analyzed for the ability to establish infection in the fetuses of pregnant heifers. The virus mutants exhibited either a deletion of the overwhelming part of the genomic region coding for the N-terminal protease N(pro), a deletion of codon 349, which abrogates the RNase activity of the structural glycoprotein E(rns), or a combination of both mutations. Two months after infection of pregnant cattle with wild-type virus or either of the single mutants, the majority of the fetuses contained virus or were aborted or found dead in the uterus. In contrast, the double mutant was not recovered from fetal tissues after a similar challenge, and no dead fetuses were found. This result was verified with a nonrelated BVDV containing similar mutations. After intrauterine challenge with wild-type virus, mutated viruses, and cytopathogenic BVDV, all viruses could be detected in fetal tissue after 5, 7, and 14 days. Type 1 interferon (IFN) could be detected in fetal serum after challenge, except with wild-type noncytopathogenic BVDV. On days 7 and 14 after challenge, the largest quantities of IFN in fetal serum were induced by the N(pro) and RNase-negative double mutant virus. The longer duration of fetal infection with the double mutant resulted in abortion. Therefore, for the first time, we have demonstrated the essential role of both N(pro) and E(rns) RNase in blocking interferon induction and establishing persistent infection by a pestivirus in the natural host. (+info)
Natural infection of cattle with an atypical 'HoBi'-like pestivirus--implications for BVD control and for the safety of biological products.
During a study on Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) epidemiology in Thailand, a pestivirus was detected in serum from a calf. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed that this virus was closely related to a recently described atypical pestivirus (D32/00_'HoBi') that was first isolated from a batch of foetal calf serum collected in Brazil. The results from virus neutralisation tests performed on sera collected from cattle in the herd of the infected calf, showed that these cattle had markedly higher antibody titres against the atypical pestivirus 'HoBi' than against Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus types 1 and 2, or Border Disease Virus. The results also supported, consequently, the results from the molecular analysis, and demonstrated that a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus had been introduced to, and was now circulating in the herd. This study is the first to report a natural infection in cattle with a virus related to this atypical pestivirus, and it suggests that this group of pestiviruses may already be spread in cattle populations. The findings have implications for BVD control and for the biosafety of vaccines and other biological products produced with foetal calf serum. Consequently, these atypical pestiviruses should be included in serological assays, and any diagnostic assay aimed at detection of pestiviruses in biological products or animals should be tested for its ability to detect them. (+info)
The imidazopyrrolopyridine analogue AG110 is a novel, highly selective inhibitor of pestiviruses that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at a hot spot for inhibition of viral replication.
Ethyl 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridin-8-carboxylate (AG110) was identified as a potent inhibitor of pestivirus replication. The 50% effective concentration values for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect, viral RNA synthesis, and production of infectious virus were 1.2 +/- 0.5 microM, 5 +/- 1 microM, and 2.3 +/- 0.3 microM, respectively. AG110 proved inactive against the hepatitis C virus and a flavivirus. AG110 inhibits BVDV replication at a time point that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis. Drug-resistant mutants carry the E291G mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). AG110-resistant virus is cross-resistant to the cyclic urea compound 1453 which also selects for the E291G drug resistance mutation. Moreover, BVDV that carries the F224S mutation (because of resistance to the imidazopyridine 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine [BPIP]and VP32947) is also resistant to AG110. AG110 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp but inhibited the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Molecular modeling revealed that E291 is located in a small cavity near the tip of the finger domain of the RdRp about 7 A away from F224. Docking of AG110 in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed several potential contacts including with Y257. The E291G mutation might enable the free rotation of Y257, which might in turn destabilize the backbone of the loop formed by residues 223 to 226, rendering more mobility to F224 and, hence, reducing the affinity for BPIP and VP32947. It is concluded that a single drug-binding pocket exists within the finger domain region of the BVDV RdRp that consists of two separate but potentially overlapping binding sites rather than two distinct drug-binding pockets. (+info)
Concurrent peste des petits ruminants virus and pestivirus infection in stillborn twin lambs.