Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.
This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. (+info)
Organizational selection and assessment of women entering a surrogacy agreement in the UK.
In the UK, surrogacy procedures are unregulated and not monitored. Information concerning the selection and assessment of intended (the mother commissioning) and surrogate mothers (the mother carrying and delivering the baby) is therefore not generally available (BMA, 1996). It is important to determine what type of assessment is used, and how selection takes place within the organizations dealing with surrogate motherhood arrangements. The present survey enquired about the incidence, selection and assessment procedures of all registered surrogate and commissioning couples, and aimed to find out what advice and support is given. Eight organizations took part in the survey, six were clinics and two agencies dealing with surrogate arrangements. Two voluntary organizations/helplines were also surveyed, but their data are not relevant to the results presented here. An interview and questionnaire approach was used. Psychosocial assessment was minimally addressed by all organizations, and no fixed procedures for assessment and selection were employed. Despite this, few incidences of controversial cases were reported. Confidence in this practice could be increased in the future if both parties embarking on a surrogacy arrangement knew they were properly selected and assessed. A regulatory body could monitor consistent use of professional evidence-based criteria prior to arrangements. (+info)
Adjustment of Korean-American physicians in Korea: aspect of personal satisfaction.
This study was conducted to assess the psychosocial adjustment of Korean-American physicians in the aspect of personal satisfaction after returning to Korea. A questionnaire was mailed to 72 Korean-American physicians who were practicing medicine in Korea and forty physicians responded. These physicians, typically in their 50s, lived in America for 21-30 years before coming back to Korea. The most frequent motives for them to come back to Korea were giving back to their native country, longing for their native country, filial duty, and suggestions from their colleagues or professors to move back. Eighty percent of them were extremely satisfied or slightly satisfied with their work in Korea, and only 10% are extremely or slightly dissatisfied with their decision to return. Although most of them are content for the time being in Korea, only 12.5% have definite plans to stay in Korea after retirement. The variables that were most significantly related to personal satisfaction of returning to Korea were how well treated at work and how much satisfied with job rather than other factors such as motives for returning, duration of staying in America and in Korea, and family situation. (+info)
Estimates of costs of primary care physician turnover.
OBJECTIVE: To provide estimates of the institutional costs associated with primary care physician (PCP) turnover (job exit). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 533 postresident, nonfederal, employed PCPs younger than 45 years of age, in practice between 2 and 9 years, participated in national surveys in 1987 and 1991. Data from a national study of physician compensation and productivity and data from physician recruiters were combined with PCP cohort data to estimate recruitment and replacement costs associated with turnover. RESULTS: By the time of the 1991 survey, slightly more than half (n = 279 or 55%) of all PCPs in this cohort had left the practice in which they had been employed in 1987; 20% (n = 100) had left 2 employers in that same 5-year period. Among those who left, self-designated specialties and proportions were general/family practice (n = 104 or 37%); general internal medicine (n = 91 or 33%); and pediatrics (n = 84 or 30%). Estimates of recruitment and replacement costs for individual PCPs for the 3 specialties were $236,383 for general/family practice, $245,128 for general internal medicine, and $264,645 for pediatrics. Turnover costs for all PCPs in the cohort by specialty were $24.5 million for general/family practice, $22.3 million for general internal medicine, and $22.2 million for pediatrics. CONCLUSIONS: Turnover was an important phenomenon among the PCPs in this cohort. This turnover has major fiscal implications for PCP employers because loss of PCPs causes healthcare delivery systems to lose resources that could otherwise be devoted to patient care. (+info)
GPs' employment of locum doctors and satisfaction with their service.
BACKGROUND: Locum doctors provide cover during normal working hours for GPs absent due to holidays, sickness, maternity leave or for educational purposes. However, there is little information on the extent of the use of locums or of GPs' perception of their services. OBJECTIVES: To examine the level of use of locum doctors by GPs, the ease of recruitment and satisfaction with their services. METHODS: A postal survey of all general practices in one of the six health regions in England was carried out. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the independent effects on locum use of practice size and type of area, source of recruitment and GPs' satisfaction with their services. RESULTS: A total of 935 (80.6%) general practices responded. Locum GPs were employed by 81.7% of practices in the previous 12 months. Two-thirds of practices reported problems obtaining locum cover, especially at short notice and for holiday periods. One-fifth of practices employing a locum in the previous 12 months were dissatisfied with the locum. CONCLUSIONS: There are high demands for, but a considerable shortage of, locum doctors in general practice. Educational and other initiatives for GPs may contribute to increased demands for locum cover. Difficulties in recruitment may be reduced by measures to improve the conditions of employment for doctors working as locums on a longer term basis. New codes of practice for employing locums may increase satisfaction with locum services. (+info)
Women in hospital medicine in the United Kingdom: glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect?
OBJECTIVE: To assess from official statistics whether there is evidence that the careers of women doctors in hospitals do not progress in the same way as those of men. DESIGN: The proportions of female hospital doctors overall (1963-96), and in the specialties of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, pathology, radiology/radiotherapy, anaesthetics and psychiatry (1974-1996) were examined. Additionally data were examined on career preferences and intentions from pre-registration house officers, final year medical students, and medical school applicants (1966-1991). ANALYSIS: Data were analysed according to cohort of entry to medical school to assess the extent of disproportionate promotion. RESULTS: The proportion of women in hospital career posts was largely explained by the rapidly increasing proportion of women entering medical school during the past three decades. In general there was little evidence for disproportionate promotion of women in hospital careers, although in surgery, hospital medicine and obstetrics and gynaecology, fewer women seemed to progress beyond the SHO grade, and in anaesthetics there were deficits of women at each career stage. Analyses of career preferences and intentions suggest that disproportionate promotion cannot readily be explained as differential choice by women. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no evidence as such of a "glass ceiling" for women doctors in hospital careers, and the current paucity of women consultants primarily reflects historical trends in the numbers of women entering medical school, there is evidence in some cases of disproportionate promotion that is best interpreted as direct or indirect discrimination. (+info)
Lessons from the London Initiative Zone Educational Incentives funding: associations between practice characteristics, funding, and courses undertaken.
BACKGROUND: Following the Tomlinson report of 1992, London Initiative Zone Educational Incentives (LIZEI) funding was introduced for a three-year period to improve recruitment, retention, and educational opportunities for general practitioners working within inner London. AIM: To test the hypothesis that general practices that show evidence of good organisation achieved better access to LIZEI funding than less organised practices. METHOD: Observational practice-based study involving all 164 general practices in EAst London and the City Health Authority during the first two years of the scheme, April 1995 to March 1997. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that higher levels of LIZEI funding were associated with practices where there was evidence of good organisation, including higher targets for cervical cytology screening and immunisation rates for under two-year-olds, better asthma prescribing, and training status. Using ten practice and population explanatory variables, multiple regression models were developed for fundholding and non-fundholding practices. Among non-fundholding practices, the asthma prescribing ratio was the variable with the greatest predictive value, explaining 14.7% of the variation in LIZEI funding between practices. Strong positive associations existed between taking further degrees and diplomas, practice size, training, and non-fundholding status. CONCLUSION: Larger practices, training practices, and those that demonstrated aspects of good practice organisation gained more LIZEI funding: an example of the 'inverse funding law'. Practices within a multifund, based in the Newham locality, gained LIZEI funding regardless of practice organisation. Networks of practices, and, potentially, primary care groups, have a role in equalising the opportunities for education and development between practices in east London. (+info)
A competency model for general practice: implications for selection, training, and development.
BACKGROUND: The role of the general practitioner (GP) has changed significantly over the past decade. This problem is compounded by growing concern over postgraduate attrition rates from medicine, with current estimates as high as 19%. AIM: To define a comprehensive model of the competencies required for the job role of GP. METHOD: Three independent studies were conducted to define GP competencies including (1) critical incidents focus groups with GPs, (2) behavioural coding of GP-patient consultations, and (3) critical incidents interviews with patients. Study 1 was conducted with GPs (n = 35) from the Trent region. Study 2 involved observation of GP-patient consultations (n = 33 consultations), and Study 3 was conducted with patients (n = 21), all from a Midlands-based medical practice. RESULTS: The data collected from the three studies provided strong evidence for a competency model comprising 11 categories with a summary of the associated behavioural descriptions. Example competencies included empathy and sensitivity, communication skills, clinical knowledge and expertise, conceptual thinking, and coping with pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Triangulation of results was achieved from three independent studies. The competencies derived imply that a greater account of personal attributes needs to be considered in recruitment and training, rather than focusing on academic and clinical competency alone. The model could be employed for future research in design of selection techniques for the role of GP. (+info)