Marital and parental satisfaction of married physicians with children.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75-5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3. 43 (range 1.0-5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS: For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and parental satisfaction. Working in salaried positions and marriage to a spouse who is either working in a profession or who is a stay-at-home parent are also related to high parental satisfaction. (+info)
Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.
This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants. (+info)
Computer-based teaching of pathology at the Zagreb University School of Medicine.
AIM: To review the experience gained in transferring USA computer-based teaching system of medical school pathology to Croatia. METHODS: Computer-based teaching program of pathology developed at the University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas, USA, was transferred to the University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia. The experimental group of 49 students was enrolled into this computer-based program. Their performance was compared with that of 195 classmates enrolled in the standard course. Objective (performance on the examinations) and subjective data (students' interviews and written evaluations of the course) were analyzed. RESULTS: The computer program was operational 5 months from the inception of the transfer. It was well received by the students, even though many initially complained that it required more effort and a continuous commitment. The major problems concerned scheduling, reflecting various requirements i mposed on students by other departments teaching in parallel with the Pathology course. Objective data gathered so far indicate that the students enrolled in the computer-based program took the first midterm examination at a significantly higher rate than the rest of the class (p<0.001), and passed the examination with significantly better grades (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Computer-based teaching programs can be readily transferred to other countries. Full implementation of the program, however, may require significant changes in the existing curriculum in the medical school to which such a program has been transferred or considerable modifications in the program adopted for transfer. It appears that the students enrolled in the computer-based program perform better than students in the standard pathology course. (+info)
Lateral hypothalamic serotonin inhibits nucleus accumbens dopamine: implications for sexual satiety.
Dopamine (DA) is released in several brain areas, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), before and during copulation in male rats. DA agonists administered into this area facilitate, and DA antagonists inhibit, numerous motivated behaviors, including male sexual behavior. Serotonin (5-HT) is generally inhibitory to male sexual behavior. We reported previously that 5-HT is released in the anterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA(A)) and that a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor microinjected into that area delayed and slowed copulation. Our present results, using high temporal resolution microdialysis, (1) confirm previous electrochemical evidence that extracellular levels of DA increase in the NAcc during copulation and decrease during the postejaculatory interval (PEI) and (2) reveal that LHA(A) 5-HT can inhibit both basal and female-elicited DA release in the NAcc. These findings suggest that the neural circuit promoting sexual quiescence during the PEI includes serotonergic input to the LHA(A), which in turn inhibits DA release in the NAcc. These findings may also provide insights concerning the inhibitory control of other motivated behaviors activated by the NAcc and may have relevance for understanding the sexual side effects common to antidepressant medications. (+info)
The health of grandparents raising grandchildren: results of a national study.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the functional and self-rated health of grandparents raising grandchildren with that of noncaregiving grandparents. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the 1992 to 1994 National Survey of Families and Households was conducted. Bivariate and logistic analyses compared 173 custodial and 3304 noncustodial grandparents in terms of functional health limitations, self-rated health, and satisfaction with health. RESULTS: Custodial grandparents were significantly more likely to have limitations in 4 of the 5 activities of daily living (ADLs) examined, with more than half reporting some limitation in 1 of the 5 ADLs. A logistic regression analysis indicated that caregiving grandparents had 50% higher odds of having an ADL limitation. Caregivers were significantly more likely to report lower satisfaction with health, and a statistical trend indicated that the caregivers had lower self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine whether the differences observed reflect artifacts or actual differences in functional abilities and other health measures. The need for policies that support rather than penalize grandparents raising grandchildren is stressed. (+info)
Carer distress in the general population: results from the Sydney Older Persons Study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess distress in a sample of carers who were selected from a community survey rather than recruited via community-service agencies. METHODS: A community survey was carried out on 630 people aged 75 or over living in Sydney, Australia. Informants nominated by these elderly people were divided into full carer (n = 21), partial carer (n = 187) and non-carer groups (n = 344). Informants completed the General Health Questionnaire (a continuous measure of psychiatric symptoms), the life satisfaction index (a measure of well-being) and the interpersonal bonding measure (a measure of quality of the relationship with the elderly person). Elderly participants had a medical examination, were assessed for disability and were questioned about use of services. RESULTS: Elderly people who had a full carer were more disabled and had more medical diagnoses. Full, but not partial, carers reported more psychiatric symptoms and lower life satisfaction. In multivariate analysis, the main determinant of carer distress was a relationship in which the carer felt controlled by the elderly person. CONCLUSION: When carers are selected from a population-based sample, only those who are full carers are more distressed. However, relationship factors are the most important determinant of distress. (+info)
Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction?
BACKGROUND: The growth of managed care has raised a number of concerns about patient and physician satisfaction. An association between physicians' professional satisfaction and the satisfaction of their patients could suggest new types of organizational interventions to improve the satisfaction of both. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the satisfaction of general internists and their patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys of patients and physicians. SETTING: Eleven academically affiliated general internal medicine practices in the greater-Boston area. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of English-speaking and Spanish-speaking patients (n = 2,620) with at least one visit to their physician (n = 166) during the preceding year. MEASUREMENTS: Patients' overall satisfaction with their health care, and their satisfaction with their most recent physician visit. MAIN RESULTS: After adjustment, the patients of physicians who rated themselves to be very or extremely satisfied with their work had higher scores for overall satisfaction with their health care (regression coefficient 2.10; 95% confidence interval 0.73-3.48), and for satisfaction with their most recent physician visit (regression coefficient 1.23; 95% confidence interval 0.26-2.21). In addition, younger patients, those with better overall health status, and those cared for by a physician who worked part-time were significantly more likely to report better satisfaction with both measures. Minority patients and those with managed care insurance also reported lower overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The patients of physicians who have higher professional satisfaction may themselves be more satisfied with their care. Further research will need to consider factors that may mediate the relation between patient and physician satisfaction. (+info)
Are orthognathic patients different?
This questionnaire-based study investigated the psychological profile of orthognathic patients prior to starting treatment and compared the findings with a control group of non-patients. Comparison of the data used multivariate multiple regression analysis where outcome variables and independent variables were studied simultaneously. Some differences were found in the psychological profile of the orthognathic patient. They displayed higher levels of state anxiety (P < 0.001), higher numbers of individuals in their social support network (P < 0.05), and lower body image and facial body image (P < 0.001). Self-esteem was also found to be lower, but only at borderline levels of significance (P = 0.052). (+info)