Transmembrane topology of the peroxin, Pex2p, an essential component for the peroxisome assembly.
The peroxisome biogenesis factor, peroxin Pex2p, is an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes [Tsukamoto, T., Miura, S., and Fujiki, Y. (1991) Nature 350, 77-81]. As a step toward elucidating the structure and biological function of Pex2p, we determined the transmembrane topology of Pex2p by expressing epitope-tagged rat Pex2p in COS-7 cells. Pex2p tagged with myc at the C-terminus was detected as a punctate staining pattern, when the cells were permeabilized with 50 microg/ml of digitonin, under which conditions intra-peroxisomal proteins such as PTS1-proteins are inaccessible to exogenous antibodies. N-terminally flag-tagged Pex2p was likewise detected upon the same treatment. These results strongly suggest that both the N- and C-terminal parts of Pex2p are exposed to the cytosol. The transmembrane orientation of Pex2p was also assessed by using rat liver peroxisomes and Pex2p region-specific antibodies. The two types of antibodies used, raised to the N- (amino acid residues 1-131) and C-terminal part (residues 226 to the C-terminus), respectively, specifically recognized Pex2p and immunoprecipitated intact, whole peroxisomes. Pex2p was not recognized by the antibodies when the peroxisomes were treated with Proteinase K. Furthermore, in situ crosslinking studies involving bifunctional reagents revealed an apparently dimeric form of Pex2p. Therefore, Pex2p is anchored to the peroxisomal membrane by two membrane-spanning segments, with its N- and C-terminal regions exposed to the cytosol. (+info)
Isolation, characterization and mutation analysis of PEX13-defective Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants.
We isolated peroxisome biogenesis mutants ZP128 and ZP150 from rat PEX2 -transformed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, by the 9-(1'-pyrene)nonanol/ultraviolet method. The mutants lacked morphologically recognizable peroxisomes and showed a typical peroxisome assembly-defective phenotype such as a high sensitivity to 12-(1'-pyrene)dodecanoic acid/UV treatment. By means of PEX cDNA transfection and cell fusion, ZP128 and ZP150 were found to belong to a recently identified complementation group H. Expression of human PEX13 cDNA restored peroxisome assembly in ZP128 and ZP150. CHO cell PEX13 was isolated; its deduced sequence comprises 405 amino acids with 93% identity to human Pex13p. Mutation in PEX13 of mutant ZP150 was determined by RT-PCR: G to A transition resulted in one amino acid substitution, Ser319Asn, in one allele and truncation of a 42 amino acid sequence from Asp265 to Lys306 in another allele. Therefore, ZP128 and ZP150 are CHO cell lines with a phenotype of impaired PEX13. (+info)
Chronic peroxisome proliferation and hepatomegaly associated with the hepatocellular tumorigenesis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and the effects of recovery.
This study compared the levels of cell proliferation and peroxisome proliferation in rodent liver with tumor incidence, to provide more information on the relationship between these events following chronic exposure. Fischer 344 rats were treated with 0, 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm DEHP, and B6C3F1 mice were treated with 0, 100, 500, 1500, or 6000 ppm DEHP in the diet for up to 104 weeks. Additional groups of rats and mice received the highest concentration for 78 weeks and then the control diet for an additional 26 weeks (recovery groups). Animals were terminated at weeks 79 and 105 for histopathologic examination. Elevated palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity and higher liver-to-body weight ratios were observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm groups of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups of mice at Week 105. No increase in palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity was evident in the recovery group, and relative liver weights were near control levels following recovery. No hepatic cell proliferation was detected at Weeks 79 or 105 in either species although preliminary data indicated that cell proliferation did occur within the first 13 weeks of exposure. A significantly higher incidence of hepatocellular tumors was only observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm group and its recovery group of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups and the recovery group of mice. The tumor incidences were reduced for the recovery groups compared with the groups fed DEHP continuously for 104 weeks. The data indicate that high levels of peroxisome proliferation and hepatomegaly are associated with DEHP hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent liver, and that the tumorigenic process may be arrested by cessation of DEHP treatment, suggesting that extended treatment with DEHP acts to promote tumor growth. (+info)
Yeast peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme: (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase domains A and B are required for optimal growth on oleic acid.
The yeast peroxisomal (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2; MFE-2) has two N-terminal domains belonging to the short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. To investigate the physiological roles of these domains, here called A and B, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fox-2 cells (devoid of Sc MFE-2) were taken as a model system. Gly(16) and Gly(329) of the S. cerevisiae A and B domains, corresponding to Gly(16), which is mutated in the human MFE-2 deficiency, were mutated to serine and cloned into the yeast expression plasmid pYE352. In oleic acid medium, fox-2 cells transformed with pYE352:: ScMFE-2(aDelta) and pYE352::ScMFE-2(bDelta) grew slower than cells transformed with pYE352::ScMFE-2, whereas cells transformed with pYE352::ScMFE-2(aDeltabDelta) failed to grow. Candida tropicalis MFE-2 with a deleted hydratase 2 domain (Ct MFE- 2(h2Delta)) and mutational variants of the A and B domains (Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltaaDelta), Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltabDelta), and Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltaaDeltabDelta)) were overexpressed and characterized. All proteins were dimers with similar secondary structure elements. Both wild type domains were enzymatically active, with the B domain showing the highest activity with short chain and the A domain with medium and long chain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrates. The data show that the dehydrogenase domains of yeast MFE-2 have different substrate specificities required to allow the yeast to propagate optimally on fatty acids as the carbon source. (+info)
Biology of senescent liver peroxisomes: role in hepatocellular aging and disease.
Despite rising interest in the health problems of the elderly, information on senescence-related alterations in essential metabolic pathways and their responses to various chemicals is scarce. Although peroxisomal pathways are involved in a multitude of cellular functions, little attention has been given to the potential relationship between senescence of these organelles and the process of aging and disease. Although the prevailing experimental evidence points to a decline in liver peroxisomal enzyme activities and a muted response to peroxisome-proliferating chemicals in aged animals, it is also evident that aged animals are more susceptible, in comparison to their young counterparts, to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of these chemicals. Furthermore, little is known about extraperoxisomal effects of peroxisome proliferators in aged animals. This review evaluates published studies on the impact of aging on basal hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, response to peroxisome proliferators, and changes in signal transduction pathways involved in these processes, with the aim of stimulating research efforts in this important area. The potential intricate relationship among senescent peroxisomes, aged hepatocytes, and health are also discussed. (+info)
The four murine peroxisomal ABC-transporter genes differ in constitutive, inducible and developmental expression.
Four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes: adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and PMP70-related protein (P70R). Inherited defects in ALDP cause the neurodegenerative disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). By comparative Northern blot analyses we found each of the four murine peroxisomal ABC transporter mRNA species at maximum abundance only in a few tissues, which differed for each family member. The four genes were also regulated differentially during mouse brain development: ALDP mRNA was most abundant in embryonic brain and gradually decreased during maturation; ALDRP and P70R mRNA accumulated in the early postnatal period; and the amount of PMP70 transcript increased slightly during the second and third postnatal week. The different expression patterns could explain why beta-oxidation is defective in X-ALD, although ALDRP and PMP70 can replace ALDP functionally in fibroblasts. Dietary fenofibrate had no effect on the ALD and P70R genes, but strongly increased expression of the ALDR and PMP70 genes in mouse liver. However, in P-glycoprotein Mdr1a-deficient mice fenofibrate treatment increased ALDR gene expression also in the brain, suggesting that the multidrug-transporter P-glycoprotein restricts entry of fenofibrate to the brain at the blood-brain barrier. Analysis of the promoter sequences revealed a cryptic nuclear hormone receptor response element of the DR+4 type in the ALDR promoter and a novel 18-bp sequence motif present only in the 5' flanking DNA of the ALDR and PMP70 genes. The mouse ALDR gene uses a single transcription start site but alternative polyadenylation sites. These data are of importance for the use of ALDP-deficient mice as a model in pharmacological gene therapy studies. (+info)
Characterization of human and murine PMP20 peroxisomal proteins that exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro.
We have isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse homologues of a yeast protein, termed peroxisomal membrane protein 20 (PMP20). Comparison of the amino acid sequences of human (HsPMP20) and mouse (MmPMP20) PMP20 proteins revealed a high degree of identity (93%), whereas resemblance to the yeast Candida boidinii PMP20A and PMP20B (CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B) was less (30% identity). Both HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 lack transmembrane regions, as do CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B. HsPMP20 mRNA expression was low in human fetal tissues, especially in the brain. In adult tissues, HsPMP20 mRNA was expressed in the majority of tissues tested. HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 contained the C-terminal tripeptide sequence Ser-Gln-Leu (SQL), which is similar to the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 utilized for protein import into peroxisomes. HsPMP20 bound directly to the human peroxisomal targeting signal 1 receptor, HsPEX5. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the C-terminal tripeptide sequence, SQL, of HsPMP20 is necessary for its binding to HsPEX5. Subcellular fractionation of HeLa cells, expressing epitope-tagged PMP20, revealed that HsPMP20 is localized in the cytoplasm and in a particulate fraction containing peroxisomes. Double-staining immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of HsPMP20 and thiolase, a bona fide peroxisomal protein. The amino acid sequence alignment of HsPMP20, MmPMP20, CbPMP20A, and CbPMP20B displayed high similarity to thiol-specific antioxidant proteins. HsPMP20 exerted an inhibitory effect on the inactivation of glutamine synthetase in the thiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system but not in the nonthiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system, suggesting that HsPMP20 possesses thiol-specific antioxidant activity. In addition, HsPMP20 removed hydrogen peroxide by its thiol-peroxidase activity. These results indicate that HsPMP20 is imported into the peroxisomal matrix via PEX5p and may work to protect peroxisomal proteins against oxidative stress. Because some portion of PMP20 might also be present in the cytosol, HsPMP20 may also have a protective effect in the cytoplasm. (+info)
Antibodies against pex14p block ATP-independent binding of matrix proteins to peroxisomes in vitro.
The membrane protein Pex14p is a key component of the protein import machinery of peroxisomes. Antibodies raised against human Pex14p recognise a 66 kDa protein in sunflower glyoxysomes (HaPex14p) and immunoprecipitate in vitro-translated Arabidopsis Pex14p (AtPex14p). These antibodies inhibit the ATP-independent binding to sunflower peroxisome membranes of peroxisome targeting signal type (PTS) 1- and PTS2-targeted matrix proteins, but not an integral membrane protein. These results suggest that Pex14p functions before the ATP-dependent step of peroxisome assembly. (+info)