(1/231) Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide and peroxisomal proliferators.

Primary cultures of fetal hepatocytes expressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upon stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peroxisomal proliferators. This enzyme was active and a good correlation between the mRNA levels, the amount of protein, and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was observed. However, when cells were incubated in the presence of indomethacin or the COX-2-specific inhibitor NS398, the amount of COX-2 protein increased 5-fold after activation with LPS and 2-fold after treatment with clofibrate. This up-regulation of COX-2 was not observed at the mRNA level. The mechanism of protein accumulation might involve either a direct stabilization of the enzyme by the inhibitors or the absence of prostaglandins involved in the regulation of its turnover. Among the prostaglandins assayed, only 15-deoxy-Prostaglandin J2 exerted a statistically significant decrease in the COX-2 levels in cells stimulated with LPS or LPS plus NS398. The accumulation of COX-2 in the presence of inhibitors was also observed in peritoneal macrophages treated under identical conditions. These results indicate that COX-2 protein accumulates after enzyme inhibition, and because removal of the inhibitors restored the enzyme activity, suppression of treatment with reversible COX-2 inhibitors may cause a transient overproduction of prostaglandins.  (+info)

(2/231) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARS) and carcinogenesis.

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are an important group of chemicals that include certain hypolipidemic drugs, plasticizers and pollutants. Many of these agents are known rodent liver tumor promoters and debate exists as to whether humans are at increased cancer risk following exposure to PPs. Research over the last decade has focused on determining the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferators exert their effects, in the hope that this controversy will be settled. PPs regulate gene expression via a steroid hormone receptor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). At least three subtypes of PPAR (alpha, beta and gamma) have been cloned from several species, including humans. These receptors have been implicated in tumor promotion, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In the present article, the current understanding of how PPARs are involved in tumorigenesis, and what this may mean to human risk assessment, will be discussed.  (+info)

(3/231) Variation of liver-type fatty acid binding protein content in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 by peroxisome proliferators and antisense RNA affects the rate of fatty acid uptake.

The liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a member of a family of mostly cytosolic 14-15 kDa proteins known to bind fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, is discussed to play a role in fatty acid uptake. Cells of the hepatoma HepG2 cell line endogenously express this protein to approximately 0.2% of cytosolic proteins and served as a model to study the effect of L-FABP on fatty acid uptake, by manipulating L-FABP expression in two approaches. First, L-FABP content was more than doubled upon treating the cells with the potent peroxisome proliferators bezafibrate and Wy14,643 and incubation of these cells with [1-14C]oleic acid led to an increase in fatty acid uptake rate from 0.55 to 0.74 and 0.98 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. In the second approach L-FABP expression was reduced by stable transfection with antisense L-FABP mRNA yielding seven clones with L-FABP contents ranging from 0.03% to 0.14% of cytosolic proteins. This reduction to one sixth of normal L-FABP content reduced the rate of [1-14C]oleic acid uptake from 0.55 to 0. 19 nmol/min per mg protein, i.e., by 66%. The analysis of peroxisome proliferator-treated cells and L-FABP mRNA antisense clones revealed a direct correlation between L-FABP content and fatty acid uptake.  (+info)

(4/231) Peroxisome proliferators enhance cyclooxygenase-2 expression in epithelial cells.

The formation of prostaglandins requires the catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) which converts arachidonic acid to the prostaglandin endoperoxide PGH2, from which all other prostaglandins are formed. COX-2 is the highly inducible isozyme of COX which is responsible for much of the prostaglandin production in inflammation and is a key factor in colon carcinogenesis. Because COX-2 activity can be rate-limiting in prostaglandin formation, COX-2 expression must be regulated tightly. Numerous factors, including mitogens, tumor promoters, and cytokines have been found to stimulate the transcription of COX-2. We show that fatty acids, prostaglandins, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compounds that are substrates, products, and inhibitors, respectively, of COX enzymatic activity, also increase its expression. These compounds are members of a heterogeneous group of compounds known as peroxisome proliferators, and the prototypical peroxisome proliferator, WY-14, 643, also enhanced COX-2 expression. We demonstrate that these compounds increase COX-2 transcription, and we identify a region of the COX-2 promoter containing a peroxisome proliferator response element that is responsible for the enhancement of COX-2 expression seen with these compounds.  (+info)

(5/231) Perfluorooctanoic acid, a peroxisome-proliferating hypolipidemic agent, dissociates apolipoprotein B48 from lipoprotein particles and decreases secretion of very low density lipoproteins by cultured rat hepatocytes.

The hypolipidemic effect is evoked by various peroxisome proliferators. Modulation of gene transcription via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is generally responsible for this effect. In addition, we have found a PPAR-independent mechanism in which fibrates, known peroxisome proliferators, decrease hepatic secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) through inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (T. Nishimaki-Mogami et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1304 (1996) 21-31). In the present study, we show a novel mechanism by which perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a potent peroxisome proliferator and inhibitor of PE methylation, exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PFOA (100 microM) added to the medium rapidly decreased the secretion of triglyceride by cultured rat hepatocytes, which was independent of the activity of cellular PE methylation. Analysis of the density of apoB secreted into the medium showed that PFOA decreased apoB48 in VLDL, but increased apoB48 in the bottom d>1.21 fraction. This lipid-poor apoB48 was also generated by incubating medium that had been harvested from control cells with PFOA, indicating that PFOA has the ability to dissociate apoB48 from lipoprotein particles. Exposure of cells to PFOA for 2 h prior to the experiment was sufficient to generate lipid-poor apoB48, indicating that PFOA exerted its effect intracellularly. Taken together, the data suggest that a strong interaction of PFOA with apoB48 disturbs the association of apoB48 with lipids in the process of intracellular VLDL assembly, thereby inhibiting VLDL secretion. This study shows that the mechanisms of hypolipidemic effect caused by various classes of peroxisome proliferators are diverse.  (+info)

(6/231) The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive among a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs.

Peroxisome proliferators (PP) cause peroxisome proliferation, associated with rodent hepatocyte growth perturbation and hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in humans this class of non-genotoxic carcinogens does not appear to have the same adverse effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) mediates the effects of PPs in rodents via peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) upstream of PP-responsive genes such as acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO). When the human ACO promoter was cloned previously, it was found to be active and to contain a consensus PPRE (-1918 AGGTCA C TGGTCA -1906). To confirm and extend those original findings, we isolated a 2 kb genomic fragment of the ACO gene promoter from a human liver biopsy and used it to create a beta-galactosidase reporter gene plasmid. The human ACO promoter reporter plasmid was added to both Hepalclc7 and NIH 3T3 cells together with a plasmid expressing mPPARa and assessed for its ability to drive PP-mediated gene transcription. The human ACO promoter fragment was inactive, unlike the equivalent rat ACO promoter fragment used as a positive control. The PPRE within our cloned fragment of the human ACO promoter differed at three positions (5'-AGGTCA G CTGTCA-3') from the previously published active human ACO promoter. Next, we studied the frequency of the inactive versus the active human PPRE within the human population. Using a PCR strategy, we isolated and analysed genomic DNA fragments from 22 unrelated human individuals and from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. In each case, the PPRE contained the inactive sequence. These data show that the human ACO gene promoter found in a sample human population is inactive. This may explain at the genomic level the lack of response of humans to some of the adverse effects of the PP class of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens.  (+info)

(7/231) Fibrates suppress fibrinogen gene expression in rodents via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha.

Plasma fibrinogen levels have been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Among the few compounds known to lower circulating fibrinogen levels in humans are certain fibrates. We have studied the regulation of fibrinogen gene expression by fibrates in rodents. Treatment of adult male rats with fenofibrate (0.5% [wt/wt] in the diet) for 7 days decreased hepatic Aalpha-, Bbeta-, and gamma-chain mRNA levels to 52% +/- 7%, 46% +/- 8%, and 81% +/- 19% of control values, respectively. In parallel, plasma fibrinogen concentrations were decreased to 63% +/- 7% of controls. The suppression of fibrinogen expression was dose-dependent and was already evident after 1 day at the highest dose of fenofibrate tested (0.5% [wt/wt]). Nuclear run-on experiments showed that the decrease in fibrinogen expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level, as exemplified for the gene for the Aalpha-chain. Other fibrates tested showed similar effects on fibrinogen expression and transcription. The effect of fibrates is specific for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) because a high-affinity ligand for PPARgamma, the thiazolidinedione BRL 49653, lowered triglyceride levels, but was unable to suppress fibrinogen expression. Direct evidence for the involvement of PPARalpha in the suppression of fibrinogen by fibrates was obtained using PPARalpha-null (-/-) mice. Compared with (+/+) mice, plasma fibrinogen levels in (-/-) mice were significantly higher (3.20 +/- 0.48 v 2.67 +/- 0.42 g/L). Also, hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels were 25% +/- 11% higher in the (-/-) mice. On treatment with 0.2% (wt/wt) fenofibrate, a significant decrease in plasma fibrinogen to 77% +/- 10% of control levels and in hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels to 65% +/- 12% of control levels was seen in (+/+) mice, but not in (-/-) mice. These studies show that PPARalpha regulates basal levels of plasma fibrinogen and establish that fibrate-suppressed expression of fibrinogen in rodents is mediated through PPARalpha.  (+info)

(8/231) Beneficial effects of fibrates on apolipoprotein A-I metabolism occur independently of any peroxisome proliferative response.

BACKGROUND: In humans, fibrates are frequently used normolipidemic drugs. Fibrates act by regulating genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in liver. In rodents, however, fibrates induce a peroxisome proliferation, leading to hepatomegaly and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. Although this peroxisome proliferative response appears not to occur in humans, it remains controversial whether the beneficial effects of fibrates on lipoprotein metabolism can occur dissociated from such undesirable peroxisomal response. Here, we assessed the influence of fenofibrate on lipoprotein metabolism and peroxisome proliferation in the rabbit, an animal that, contrary to rodents and similar to humans, is less sensitive to peroxisome proliferators. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we demonstrate that in normal rabbits, fenofibrate given at a high dose for 2 weeks does not influence serum concentrations or intestinal mRNA levels of the HDL apolipoprotein apoA-I. Therefore, the study was continued with human apoA-I transgenic rabbits that overexpress the human apoA-I gene under control of its homologous promoter, including its PPAR-response elements. In these animals, fenofibrate increases serum human apoA-I concentrations via an increased expression of the human apoA-I gene in liver. Interestingly, liver weight or mRNA levels and activity of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, a rate-limiting and marker enzyme of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, remain unchanged after fenofibrate. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of the human apoA-I transgene in rabbit liver suffices to confer fibrate-mediated induction of serum apoA-I. Furthermore, these data provide in vivo evidence that the beneficial effects of fibrates on lipoprotein metabolism occur mechanistically dissociated from any deleterious activity on peroxisome proliferation and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis.  (+info)