Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides.
The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins. (+info)
Isolation and purification of rat mammary tumor peroxidase.
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors often contain high levels of the enzyme perioxidase, a putative marker of estrogen dependence. This enzyme can be effectively extracted with 0.5 M CaCl2, giving rise to a soluble peroxidase with a molecular weight of about 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. This is the same size as the estrogen-induced peroxidase of rat uterus but smaller than other mammalian peroxidases. Further purification of the rat mammary tumor peroxidase by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose provides a 640-fold purification of the enzyme. (+info)
Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member.
Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space. (+info)
Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes.
A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h. (+info)
Phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase activity of human serum albumin.
Human serum albumin (HSA) reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide, 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-l-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC-OOH) to the corresponding hydroxy-derivative with a high apparent affinity (Km=9. 23+/-0.95 microM). Removal of bound lipid during purification increased this activity. At physiological concentration, HSA reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide in the absence of a cofactor. However, in the presence of a cofactor (reductant), the rate of the reaction was increased. All of the major aminothiols in plasma could act as reductants, the best being the most abundant, cysteine (Km=600+/-80 microM). For every nanomole of PLPC-OOH reduced by HSA, 1.26 nmol of cystine was formed, indicating a reaction stoichiometry of 1 mol PLPC-OOH to 2 mol cysteine. We used chemical modification to determine which amino acid residues on HSA were responsible for the activity. Oxidation of thiol group(s) by N-ethylmaleimide led to a reduction in the rate of activity, whereas reduction of thiols by either dithiothreitol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, increased the activity. Both N-ethylmaleimide-modified HSA and dithiothreitol-treated HSA exhibited increased apparent affinities for PLPC-OOH. For a range of preparations of albumin with different modifications, the activity on PLPC-OOH was dependent on the amount of free thiol groups on the albumin (correlation coefficient=0.91). Patients with lowered albumin concentrations after septic shock showed lowered total plasma thiol concentrations and decreased phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase (PHCPx) activities. These results therefore show for the first time that HSA exhibits PHCPx activity, and that the majority of the activity depends on the presence of reduced thiol group(s) on the albumin. (+info)
Use of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the structure, function and isoniazid activation of the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
A series of mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions often encountered in the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from isoniazid-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been produced by site-directed mutagenesis. The resultant enzymes were overexpressed, purified and characterized. Replacing Cys-20 by Ser abolished disulphide-bridge formation, but did not affect either dimerization of the enzyme or catalysis. The substitution of Thr-275, which is probably involved in electron transfer from the haem, by proline resulted in a highly unstable enzyme with insignificant enzyme activities. The most commonly occurring substitution in drug-resistant clinical isolates is the replacement of Ser-315 by Thr; this lowered catalase and peroxidase activities by 50% and caused a significant decrease in the KatG-mediated inhibition of the activity of the NADH-dependent enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase, InhA, in vitro. The ability of this enzyme to produce free radicals from isoniazid was severely impaired, as judged by its loss of NitroBlue Tetrazolium reduction activity. Replacement of Leu-587 by Pro resulted in marked instability of KatG, indicating that the C-terminal domain is also important for structural and functional integrity. (+info)
Direct interaction of lignin and lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Binding properties of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium against a synthetic lignin (dehydrogenated polymerizate, DHP) were studied with a resonant mirror biosensor. Among several ligninolytic enzymes, only LiP specifically binds to DHP. Kinetic analysis revealed that the binding was reversible, and that the dissociation equilibrium constant was 330 microM. The LiP-DHP interaction was controlled by the ionization group with a pKa of 5.3, strongly suggesting that a specific amino acid residue plays a role in lignin binding. A one-electron transfer from DHP to oxidized intermediates LiP compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) was characterized by using a stopped-flow technique, showing that binding interactions of DHP with LiPI and LiPII led to saturation kinetics. The dissociation equilibrium constants for LiPI-DHP and LiPII-DHP interactions were calculated to be 350 and 250 microM, and the first-order rate constants for electron transfer from DHP to LiPI and to LiPII were calculated to be 46 and 16 s-1, respectively. These kinetic and spectral studies strongly suggest that LiP is capable of oxidizing lignin directly at the protein surface by a long-range electron transfer process. A close look at the crystal structure suggested that LiP possesses His-239 as a possible lignin-binding site on the surface, which is linked to Asp-238. This Asp residue is hydrogen-bonded to the proximal His-176. This His-Asp...proximal-His motif would be a possible electron transfer route to oxidize polymeric lignin. (+info)
Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability. (+info)