A developmental response to pathogen infection in Arabidopsis.
We present evidence that susceptible Arabidopsis plants accelerate their reproductive development and alter their shoot architecture in response to three different pathogen species. We infected 2-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings with two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris, and an oomycete, Peronospora parasitica. Infection with each of the three pathogens reduced time to flowering and the number of aerial branches on the primary inflorescence. In the absence of competition, P. syringae and P. parasitica infection also increased basal branch development. Flowering time and branch responses were affected by the amount of pathogen present. Large amounts of pathogen caused the most dramatic changes in the number of branches on the primary inflorescence, but small amounts of P. syringae caused the fastest flowering and the production of the most basal branches. RPS2 resistance prevented large changes in development when it prevented visible disease symptoms but not at high pathogen doses and when substantial visible hypersensitive response occurred. These experiments indicate that phylogenetically disparate pathogens cause similar changes in the development of susceptible Arabidopsis. We propose that these changes in flowering time and branch architecture constitute a general developmental response to pathogen infection that may affect tolerance of and/or resistance to disease. (+info)
Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to root inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.
Root inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r partially protected leaves from the oomycete Peronospora parasitica. The molecular determinants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r for this induced systemic resistance (ISR) were investigated, using mutants derived from strain CHA0: CHA400 (pyoverdine deficient), CHA805 (exoprotease deficient), CHA77 (HCN deficient), CHA660 (pyoluteorin deficient), CHA631 (2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol [DAPG] deficient), and CHA89 (HCN, DAPG- and pyoluteorin deficient). Only mutations interfering with DAPG production led to a significant decrease in ISR to Peronospora parasitica. Thus, DAPG production in Pseudomonas fluorescens is required for the induction of ISR to Peronospora parasitica. DAPG is known for its antibiotic activity; however, our data indicate that one action of DAPG could be due to an effect on the physiology of the plant. DAPG at 10 to 100 microM applied to roots of Arabidopsis mimicked the ISR effect. CHA0r-mediated ISR was also tested in various Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants: NahG (transgenic line degrading salicylic acid [SA]), sid2-1 (nonproducing SA), npr1-1 (non-expressing NPR1 protein), jar1-1 (insensitive to jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonic acid), ein2-1 (insensitive to ethylene), etr1-1 (insensitive to ethylene), eir1-1 (insensitive to ethylene in roots), and pad2-1 (phytoalexin deficient). Only jar1-1, eir1-1, and npr1-1 mutants were unable to undergo ISR. Sensitivity to jasmonic acid and functional NPR1 and EIR1 proteins were required for full expression of CHA0r-mediated ISR. The requirements for ISR observed in this study in Peronospora parasitica induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r only partially overlap with those published so far for Peronospora parasitica, indicating a great degree of flexibility in the molecular processes leading to ISR. (+info)
A "Whirly" transcription factor is required for salicylic acid-dependent disease resistance in Arabidopsis.
Transcriptional reprogramming is critical for plant disease resistance responses; its global control is not well understood. Salicylic acid (SA) can induce plant defense gene expression and a long-lasting disease resistance state called systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Plant-specific "Whirly" DNA binding proteins were previously implicated in defense gene regulation. We demonstrate that the potato StWhy1 protein is a transcriptional activator of genes containing the PBF2 binding PB promoter element. DNA binding activity of AtWhy1, the Arabidopsis StWhy1 ortholog, is induced by SA and is required for both SA-dependent disease resistance and SA-induced expression of an SAR response gene. AtWhy1 is required for both full basal and specific disease resistance responses. The transcription factor-associated protein NPR1 is also required for SAR. Surprisingly, AtWhy1 activation by SA is NPR1 independent, suggesting that AtWhy1 works in conjunction with NPR1 to transduce the SA signal. Our analysis of AtWhy1 adds a critical component to the SA-dependent plant disease resistance response. (+info)
The potyviral suppressor of RNA silencing confers enhanced resistance to multiple pathogens.
Helper component-protease (HC-Pro) is a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing, and transgenic tobacco expressing HC-Pro has increased susceptibility to a broad range of viral pathogens. Here we report that these plants also exhibit enhanced resistance to unrelated heterologous pathogens. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection of HC-Pro-expressing plants carrying the N resistance gene results in fewer and smaller lesions compared to controls without HC-Pro. The resistance to TMV is compromised but not eliminated by expression of nahG, which prevents accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), an important defense signaling molecule. HC-Pro-expressing plants are also more resistant to tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV) and to the oomycete Peronospora tabacina. Enhanced TBRV resistance is SA-independent, whereas the response to P. tabacina is associated with early induction of markers characteristic of SA-dependent defense. Thus, a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing enhances resistance to multiple pathogens via both SA-dependent and SA-independent mechanisms. (+info)
Silencing of the mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6 compromises disease resistance in Arabidopsis.
Here, we use a loss-of-function approach to demonstrate that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MPK6 plays a role in resistance to certain pathogens. MPK6-silenced Arabidopsis showed no apparent morphological phenotype or reduced fertility, indicating MPK6 is not required for development. However, resistances to an avirulent strain of Peronospora parasitica and avirulent and virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae were compromised, suggesting that MPK6 plays a role in both resistance gene-mediated and basal resistance. Furthermore, this result demonstrates that MPK6's function cannot be fully complemented by other endogenous MAPKs. Although MPK6-silenced plants exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility, their ability to develop systemic acquired resistance or induced systemic resistance was unaffected. Expression of the pathogen-inducible gene VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN1 (VSP1) in MPK6-silenced plants was severalfold lower than in control plants, but the expression of other defense genes was comparable to the level observed in control plants. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that a specific MAPK positively regulates VSP1 expression and resistance to a primary infection by certain pathogens, whereas systemic resistance and expression of several other defense genes appears to be mediated either by a functionally redundant MAPK(s) or independently from MPK6-dependent resistance. (+info)
The maintenance of extreme amino acid diversity at the disease resistance gene, RPP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana.
We have used the naturally occurring plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and its common parasite Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) to study the evolution of resistance specificity in the host population. DNA sequence of the resistance gene, RPP13, from 24 accessions, including 20 from the United Kingdom, revealed amino acid sequence diversity higher than that of any protein coding gene reported so far in A. thaliana. A significant excess of amino acid polymorphism segregating within this species is localized within the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP13. These results indicate that single alleles of the gene have not swept through the population, but instead, a diverse collection of alleles have been maintained. Transgenic complementation experiments demonstrate functional differences among alleles in their resistance to various pathogen isolates, suggesting that the extreme amino acid polymorphism in RPP13 is maintained through continual reciprocal selection between host and pathogen. (+info)
Arabidopsis downy mildew resistance gene RPP27 encodes a receptor-like protein similar to CLAVATA2 and tomato Cf-9.
The Arabidopsis Ler-RPP27 gene confers AtSgt1b-independent resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) isolate Hiks1. The RPP27 locus was mapped to a four-bacterial artificial chromosome interval on chromosome 1 from genetic analysis of a cross between the enhanced susceptibility mutant Col-edm1 (Col-sgt1) and Landsberg erecta (Ler-0). A Cf-like candidate gene in this interval was PCR amplified from Ler-0 and transformed into mutant Col-rpp7.1 plants. Homozygous transgenic lines conferred resistance to Hiks1 and at least four Ler-0 avirulent/Columbia-0 (Col-0) virulent isolates of downy mildew pathogen. A full-length RPP27 cDNA was isolated, and analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the gene encodes a receptor-like protein (RLP) with a distinct domain structure, composed of a signal peptide followed by extracellular Leu-rich repeats, a membrane spanning region, and a short cytoplasmic carboxyl domain. RPP27 is the first RLP-encoding gene to be implicated in disease resistance in Arabidopsis, enabling the deployment of Arabidopsis techniques to investigate the mechanisms of RLP function. Homology searches of the Arabidopsis genome, using the RPP27, Cf-9, and Cf-2 protein sequences as a starting point, identify 59 RLPs, including the already known CLAVATA2 and TOO MANY MOUTHS genes. A combination of sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these predicted RLPs reveals conserved structural features of the family. (+info)
Gene expression signatures from three genetically separable resistance gene signaling pathways for downy mildew resistance.
Resistance gene-dependent disease resistance to pathogenic microorganisms is mediated by genetically separable regulatory pathways. Using the GeneChip Arabidopsis genome array, we compared the expression profiles of approximately 8,000 Arabidopsis genes following activation of three RPP genes directed against the pathogenic oomycete Peronospora parasitica. Judicious choice of P. parasitica isolates and loss of resistance plant mutants allowed us to compare the responses controlled by three genetically distinct resistance gene-mediated signaling pathways. We found that all three pathways can converge, leading to up-regulation of common sets of target genes. At least two temporal patterns of gene activation are triggered by two of the pathways examined. Many genes defined by their early and transient increases in expression encode proteins that execute defense biochemistry, while genes exhibiting a sustained or delayed expression increase predominantly encode putative signaling proteins. Previously defined and novel sequence motifs were found to be enriched in the promoters of genes coregulated by the local defense-signaling network. These putative promoter elements may operate downstream from signal convergence points. (+info)