In vitro modulation of inflammatory cytokine and IgG levels by extracts of Perna canaliculus.
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a predominant characteristic of autoimmune diseases which is characterized by the increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Soon to be published work from our laboratory has shown that ingestion of Perna canaliculus prevents the development of autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in laboratory animals. The current paper attempts to illustrate how Perna can alleviate inflammation by modulating inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase enzymes and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) levels. METHODS: In the present study, hydrochloric acid [HCl] and Tween-20 were used to develop extracts of Perna. These extracts were assayed for protein content. Increasing concentrations of these extracts were then tested in cell culture for modulation of inflammatory cytokine, cyclooxygenase enzymes and IgG levels. Parallel tests were run using an available glycogen extract of Perna as a comparison to our in-house laboratory preparations. RESULTS: Tween-20 Perna extracts were found to be more stable and less toxic in cell culture than HCl digest of Perna. They also assayed higher in protein content that HCl extracts. Although both extracts inhibited IgG production in V2E9 hybridomas, Tween-20 extracts were more consistent in IgG suppression than HCl extracts. Overall Tween-20 extracts effectively decreased levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 as observed using cytokine bioassays. Twenty micrograms of Tween-20 Perna extracts induced such significant decreases in inflammatory cytokine production that when tested on sensitive cell lines, they very nearly abolished the decrease in viability induced by these cytokines. Tween-20 extracts effectively inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 cyclooxygenase activity. As a comparison, the glycogen extract also demonstrated a similar though weaker effect on COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. The active components of both extracts (Tween-20 and glycogen) were observed to possess molecular weights above 100 kDa. Although the anti-cytokine activity of the Tween-20 extract was destroyed by Proteinase-K treatment, the anti-COX-1 and anti-COX-2 activity of both the extracts were not sensitive to protease treatment. CONCLUSION: We have successfully demonstrated modulation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase enzymes and immunoglobulins by our in-house laboratory preparations of Perna canaliculus, whereby suggesting an immunomodulatory role of Perna canaliculus in regulating inflammation. (+info)
Larval development of Brachidontes solisianus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae), with notes on differences between its hinge system and that of the mollusk Perna perna.
This work, which is part of a study program on meroplankton larvae, aims to gain more in-depth knowledge about planktonic larvae. This study began with the mollusk Brachidontes solisianus (Bivalvia-Mytilidae), which is abundant on the rocky shores of the Cabo Frio region (state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Brachidontes solisianus larvae were grown under controlled conditions for a period of 26 days and were fed with Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis chui. The temperature was kept at 26 degrees C and the saltiness at 28. Images of the larvae were taken daily with a light camera and measured with a micrometric lens until settlement occurred. The average size of the first D-shaped veliger stage was 90 microm in length and 70 microm in height, while the size in the last stage before settlement (pediveliger) was 273 microm in length and 257 microm in height. The comparative study of the hinge system involved the most abundant intertidal species of the study area: Brachidontes solisianus and Perna perna. The B. solisianus species were found to have more visible denticles at the extremities of the provinculum, whereas the denticles of the P. perna species occur along the entire provinculum. (+info)
Physiological rates in different classes of sizes of Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) submitted to experimental laboratory conditions.
Physiological studies of the mussel Perna perna in Brazil are almost 30 years behind those of other, more exhaustively investigated species, such as Mytilus edulis. Little is known about the variations in physiological rates due to size and the consequences of maintaining P. perna in laboratory conditions. This work investigated the variations in respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency rates of P. perna, classified by size and acclimatized in a laboratory, monitoring the mussels respiration rates and biometry over a period of 30 days, in laboratory conditions. The respiration, clearance and excretion rates presented an allometric relation with the dry weight of the organisms, with b values of 0.66, 0.48 and 0.91 respectively. On the other hand, these same rates, when considered by weight (specific rates) showed a relationship that was inverse to the size of the organisms. Only the absorption efficiency was independent of the weight of the mussel. In terms of acclimatization, it was observed that it takes 10 days for the respiration rate of the mussel P. perna to stabilize in laboratory conditions, after which it follows a routine metabolism. (+info)
A comparative study of the anti-settlement properties of mytilid shells.
Marine organisms have evolved defence mechanisms to prevent epibiosis. This study investigated the anti-settlement properties of natural periostracal microtopographies of two mytilid species, Mytilus edulis (from North, Baltic and White Seas) and Perna perna (from the SW Atlantic). Resin replicas of shells were exposed to cyprids of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Replicas with intact isotropic microtopographies and smooth controls were much less fouled than roughened anisotropic surfaces. This indicates that in both M. edulis and P. perna the periostracum possesses a generic anti-settlement property, at least against S. balanoides cyprids, which is not regionally adapted. Such a potential globally effective anti-settlement mechanism possibly contributes to the invasive success of Mytilidae. (+info)
Temporal genetic differentiation in cultured and natural beds of the brown mussel Perna perna (Mytilidae).
Perna perna is the most important cultivated mussel of Santa Catarina, Brazil, sustaining an important economic input for many local families. Natural stocks of P. perna are depleted by the extraction of adults and seeds for consumption and culture. The aim of the present study was to use the microsatellite locus pms-2 to study the variation of the genetic composition and diversity between natural and cultured stocks in samples of 2001 and 2005 from Penha, Santa Catarina. DNA was extracted from adductor muscle by Chelex/proteinase-K and phenol/chloroform protocols. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for analyzing the pms-2 locus. Polymerase chain reaction products were submitted to vertical denatured 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and horizontal 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, and visualized by silver staining and ethidium bromide, respectively. Allele diversity and heterozygote deficiency were higher for samples of 2005 than for those of 2001. No significant genetic differentiation was found between natural and cultured stocks of 2001 by the chi(2) test, but G(2) (likelihood ratio) detected slight differences (I = 0.949; chi(2), P = 0.147; G(2), P = 0.046), while cultured and natural stocks of 2005 were very different (I = 0.798, P = 0.006). Between the years of 2001 and 2005, a large change in genetic composition was observed (I = 0.582; P < 0.001). Although nothing is known about natural changes in the genetic composition of this species with time, the results suggest a strong impact of human activities on natural stocks of P. perna, which is expected to be related to heavy extraction and farming. (+info)
Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia).
The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and benzene (C(6)H(6)). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO(4) and C(6)H(6) and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic. (+info)
Immunomodulation of murine collagen-induced arthritis by N, N-dimethylglycine and a preparation of Perna canaliculus.
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its accepted animal model, murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), are classic autoimmune inflammatory diseases which require proinflammatory cytokine production for pathogenesis. We and others have previously used N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and extracts from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus (Perna) as potent immunomodulators to modify ongoing immune and/or inflammatory responses. METHODS: In our initial studies, we treated lipopolysaccahride (LPS) stimulated THP-1 monocytes in vitro with increasing concentrations of Perna extract or DMG. Additionally, we treated rat peripheral blood neutrophils with increasing concentrations of Perna extract and measured superoxide burst. In subsequent in vivo experiments, CIA was induced by administration of type II collagen; rats were prophylactically treated with either Perna or DMG, and then followed for disease severity. Finally, to test whether Perna and/or DMG could block or inhibit an ongoing pathologic disease process, we induced CIA in mice and treated them therapeutically with either of the two immunomodulators. RESULTS: Following LPS stimulation of THP-1 monocytes, we observed dose-dependent reductions in TNF-alpha and IL-12p40 production in Perna treated cultures. DMG treatment, however, showed significant increases in both of these cytokines in the range of 0.001-1 microM. We also demonstrate that in vitro neutrophil superoxide burst activity is dose-dependently reduced in the presence of Perna. Significant reductions in disease incidence, onset, and severity of CIA in rats were noted following prophylactic treatment with either of the two immunomodulators. More importantly, amelioration of mouse CIA was observed following therapeutic administration of Perna. In contrast, DMG appeared to have little effect in mice and may act in a species-specific manner. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that Perna, and perhaps DMG, may be useful supplements to the treatment of RA in humans. (+info)
Systematic review of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.