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(1/24) De Morsier syndrome associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia: case report.

INTRODUCTION: Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is defined as the association between optic nerve hypoplasia, midline central nervous system malformations and pituitary dysfunction. CASE REPORT: Third child born to nonconsanguineous parents, female, adequate pre-natal medical care, cesarean term delivery due to breech presentation, Apgar score 3 at the first minute and 8 at 5 minutes, symptomatic hypoglycemia at 18 hours. Neurological follow-up identified a delay in acquisition of motor and language developmental milestones. Epileptic generalized seizures began at 12 months and were controlled with phenobarbital. EEG was normal. MRI revealed agenesis of the pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the optic chiasm and periventricular nodular heterotopia. Ophthalmologic evaluation showed bilateral optic disk hypoplasia. Endocrine function laboratory tests revealed primary hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. CONCLUSION: The relevance of this case report relies on its uniqueness, since periventricular heterotopia had not been described in association with septo-optic dysplasia until 2006.  (+info)

(2/24) Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy.

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning with proliferation and differentiation of neurons, which then migrate before finally organizing themselves in the developing cortex. Abnormalities at any of these stages, be they environmental or genetic in origin, may cause disruption of neuronal circuitry and predispose to a variety of clinical consequences, the most common of which is epileptic seizures. A large number of MCDs have now been described, each with characteristic pathological, clinical, and imaging features. The causes of many of these MCDs have been determined through the study of affected individuals, with many MCDs now established as being secondary to mutations in cortical development genes. This review will highlight the best-known of the human cortical malformations associated with epilepsy. The pathological, clinical, imaging, and etiologic features of each MCD will be summarized, with representative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images shown for each MCD. The malformations tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly, classical lissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia, periventricular nodular heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and schizencephaly will be presented.  (+info)

(3/24) Neuroimaging aspects of Aicardi syndrome.

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(4/24) Disruption of neural progenitors along the ventricular and subventricular zones in periventricular heterotopia.

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(5/24) Movement disorder and neuronal migration disorder due to ARFGEF2 mutation.

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(6/24) Gray matter volumes and cognitive ability in the epileptogenic brain malformation of periventricular nodular heterotopia.

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(7/24) Spred1, a negative regulator of Ras-MAPK-ERK, is enriched in CNS germinal zones, dampens NSC proliferation, and maintains ventricular zone structure.

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(8/24) Absence epilepsy and periventricular nodular heterotopia.

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