(1/1533) Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status. (+info)
(2/1533) Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb. (+info)
(3/1533) Microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial disease are independent predictors of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, especially among hypertensive subjects: five-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study.
Microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It has been proposed that MA reflects generalized atherosclerosis and may thus predict mortality. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the associations between, on the one hand, MA and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a generally accepted marker of generalized atherosclerosis, and, on the other hand, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in an age-, sex-, and glucose tolerance-stratified sample (n=631) of a population-based cohort aged 50 to 75 years followed prospectively for 5 years. At baseline, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in an overnight spot urine sample; MA was defined as ACR >2.0 mg/mmol. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial pressure index below 0.90 and/or a history of a peripheral arterial bypass or amputation. After 5 years of follow-up, 58 subjects had died (24 of cardiovascular causes). Both MA and PAD were associated with a 4-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, levels of total and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride, body mass index, smoking habits, and preexistent ischemic heart disease, the relative risks (RR) (95% confidence intervals) were 3.2 (1.3 to 8.1) for MA and 2.4 (0.9 to 6.1) for PAD. When both MA and PAD were included in the multivariate analysis, the RRs were 2.9 (1.1 to 7.3) for MA and 2.0 (0.7 to 5.7) for PAD. MA and PAD were both associated with an about 2-fold increase in all-cause mortality. The RRs of all-cause mortality associated with MA and PAD were about 4 times higher among hypertensive than among normotensive subjects. We conclude that both MA and PAD are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. MA and PAD are mutually independent risk indicators. The associations of MA and PAD with all-cause mortality are somewhat weaker. They are more pronounced in the presence of hypertension than in its absence. These data suggest that MA affects mortality risk through a mechanism different from generalized atherosclerosis. (+info)
(4/1533) The association between laser Doppler reactive hyperaemia curves and the distribution of peripheral arterial disease.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether postocclusive laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) curves can be related to the arteriographic distribution of disease. DESIGN: Prospective study. MATERIALS: Sixty-nine patients with symptomatic peripheral ischaemia and 15 healthy subjects. METHODS: Laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) was monitored on the dorsum of the symptomatic foot following 2 min of arterial occlusion at the ankle. During reperfusion three patterns of LDF were identified (types I-III). All patients subsequently underwent arteriography which was reported independent of LDF results. The distribution of disease, particularly patency of below-knee vessels, was related to the type of LDF curve observed during reactive hyperaemia. RESULTS: Type I curves were observed in all healthy subjects and 75% of patients with a single arterial lesion. Type II curves were found in 78% of patients with multiple lesions above the knee. The presence of either a type I or II curve was associated with a continuous vessel from knee to ankle (positive predictive value 83%, p < 0.01), whilst type III curve was associated with discontinuous infrapopliteal run-off (positive predictive value 86%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that post-occlusive LDF curves may identify the distribution of arterial disease and may be useful in the non-invasive management of peripheral ischaemia. (+info)
(5/1533) Leg symptoms, the ankle-brachial index, and walking ability in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how functional status and walking ability are related to both severity of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and PAD-related leg symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 55 years and older diagnosed with PAD in a blood flow laboratory or general medicine practice (n = 147). Randomly selected control patients without PAD were identified in a general medicine practice (n = 67). MEASUREMENTS: Severity of PAD was measured with the ankle-brachial index (ABI). All patients were categorized according to whether they had (1) no exertional leg symptoms; (2) classic intermittent claudication; (3) exertional leg symptoms that also begin at rest (pain at rest), or (4) exertional leg symptoms other than intermittent claudication or pain at rest (atypical exertional leg symptoms). Participants completed the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). The WIQ quantifies patient-reported walking speed, walking distance, and stair-climbing ability, respectively, on a scale of 0 to 100 (100 = best). MAIN RESULTS: In multivariate analyses patients with atypical exertional leg symptoms, intermittent claudication, and pain at rest, respectively, had progressively poorer scores for walking distance, walking speed, and stair climbing. The ABI was measurably and independently associated with walking distance (regression coefficient = 2.87/0.1 ABI unit, p =.002) and walking speed (regression coefficient = 2.09/0.1 ABI unit, p =.015) scores. Among PAD patients only, pain at rest was associated independently with all WIQ scores and six SF-36 domains, while ABI was an independent predictor of WIQ distance score. CONCLUSIONS: Both PAD-related leg symptoms and ABI predict patient-perceived walking ability in PAD. (+info)
(6/1533) Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study.
AIMS: The aim was to determine whether the effect of smoking on the development of peripheral or coronary artery disease might be mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors, including dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum low and high density lipoproteins, blood pressure, plasma fibrinogen, blood viscosity and markers of endothelial disturbance and fibrin turnover. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years were selected at random from 11 general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland and followed-up for 5 years. The incidences of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease were 5.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Both conditions were more common in moderate and heavy smokers than in never smokers: cigarette smoking was a stronger risk factor for peripheral arterial disease than for coronary artery disease. Smoking was associated with reduced dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure and with increased alcohol intake, serum triglycerides, blood viscosity, plasma fibrinogen, and markers of endothelial disturbance (tissue plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor antigens). Simultaneous adjustment for these risk factors reduced the relative risk of peripheral arterial disease only slightly, from 3.94 (95% CI 2.04, 7.62) to 2.72 (95% CI 1.13, 6.53) in heavy smokers and from 1.87 (95% CI 0.91, 3.85) to 1.70 (95% CI 0.72, 3.99) in moderate smokers. Similar adjustment also had little effect on the risk of coronary artery disease associated with smoking. CONCLUSION: The combined effect of smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors studied may explain part of its influence on peripheral and coronary arterial disease, but the majority of the effect appears to be due to other mechanisms. (+info)
(7/1533) Vascular surgical intervention for complications of cardiovascular radiology: 13 years' experience in a single centre.
This study investigates incidence and outcome of iatrogenic vascular complications needing surgery in a single vascular unit serving interventional vascular radiology and interventional cardiology. Evolution of diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular radiology, along with the introduction of non-surgical therapies for such complications, may have influenced the number of vascular complications requiring emergency surgery. Vascular surgical data were collected from information prospectively entered on computerised database and case note review. Radiology data were collated from prospective entries in logbooks and computerised database. In all 24,033 cardiovascular radiological procedures were performed between 1984 and 1996 (61% cardiac), numbers increasing annually. During this period, 62 patients (40 peripheral; 22 cardiac) required emergency surgical intervention after radiological procedures. Mean age was 61.9 years (range 1-92 years), male to female ratio was 1:1. The absolute number of cases requiring surgical intervention peaked in 1989, subsequently reducing annually. Sites of vascular injury included common femoral artery (40), brachial artery (6), iliac artery (6), popliteal artery (5), other (5). A total of 87 vascular surgical operations was performed (range 1-6 operations per patient). Interventions included thrombectomy/embolectomy (29), bypass grafting (16), direct repair (27). Seven major amputations were performed (two bilateral). Mortality after surgery was 9.7%. Mean inpatient hospital stay was 11.3 days (range 0-75 days). A Poisson regression model indicates a 5% reduction in risk for each successive year of observation; however, this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.16, 95% CI 12% decreased risk to 2% increased risk). The risk of surgical intervention after diagnostic or interventional cardiovascular radiology is diminishing but still requires vigilance. Necessity for surgical intervention is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. (+info)
(8/1533) Peripheral atherosclerosis and serum lipoprotein(a) in diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is strongly associated with atherosclerosis in nondiabetic individuals. To see if atherosclerosis is also associated with serum Lp(a) in both IDDM and NIDDM, we determined the correlation between the toe systolic blood pressure index (TSPI) and serum Lp(a) in tightly controlled diabetic patients without nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 57 IDDM and 35 NIDDM patients. All patients had been under strict glycemic control for at least 6 months. The main outcome measure was TSPI of both lower extremities. In addition, we measured serum Lp(a) and other serum lipids, serum uric acid, total plasma homocysteine, plasma C-peptide, HbA1c, albumin excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, BMI, abdominal fat distribution, left ventricular hypertrophy, probabilities for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and routine clinical parameters. RESULTS: TSPI was closely and independently related to serum Lp(a) in IDDM patients: R2 = 0.2999, partial P = 0.0005, and in NIDDM patients: R2 = 0.7326, partial P = 0.0030. TSPI was associated with symptoms of CVD. Median serum Lp(a) concentration was normal in IDDM (45 mg/l [range 10-870]) and NIDDM (72 mg/l [11-803]) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic atherosclerosis measured as the degree of peripheral occlusive arterial disease is strongly associated with serum Lp(a) in both IDDM and NIDDM patients. Serum Lp(a), however, is normal in both types of diabetic patients. Thus, it is indicated that serum Lp(a) should be measured in diabetic patients when assessing their risk profile for atherosclerosis. (+info)