(1/228) Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene. (+info)
(2/228) Correlation between clinicopathological features and karyotype in spindle cell sarcomas. A report of 130 cases from the CHAMP study group.
Soft-tissue tumors have proved to be a fruitful area for the identification of reproducible cytogenetic aberrations, especially among pediatric round-cell sarcomas and lipomatous tumors. Thus far, however, data regarding sarcomas of monomorphic spindle cell type have been limited and somewhat disappointing, with the notable exception of synovial sarcoma. As part of an ongoing international collaborative study, 130 karyotyped spindle-cell sarcomas were reviewed and classified histologically, without knowledge of the clinical and karyotypic data, with the aim of identifying objective correlations between morphology, karyotype, and clinical parameters. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 82 cases studied (63%), but only in the group of synovial sarcomas was there clear correlation between the cytogenetic findings, in the form of a consistent t(X;18)(p11;q11), and morphology. Among leiomyosarcomas (41 cases) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs; 27 cases) as well as in individual examples of rarer entities, there was a general tendency for karyotypic complexity associated with frequent loss or rearrangement of chromosome arms 1p, 10p, 11q, 12q, 17p, and 22q. Rearrangements of 17q (the region of the NF1 gene) were seen in 9/27 (33%) of MPNSTs. Among nine cases of solitary fibrous tumor (in which previous cytogenetic data are very limited) no consistent aberrations were identified. We conclude that, with the exception of synovial sarcoma, most spindle-cell sarcomas share with pleomorphic sarcomas the tendency for karyotypic complexity. There was no indication (in most of these lesions) that detectable cytogenetic aberrations could either facilitate their diagnosis or help to determine prognosis. There is a clear need to further study and understand the significance of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in this group of mesenchymal neoplasms with the particular goal of determining their role in the process of tumor development. (+info)
(3/228) Ganglion-cell tumor of the filum terminale: immunohistochemical characterization.
A case of an unusual spinal neuronal tumor is described in a 36-year-old woman presenting with a buttock pain. The spinal tumor was fully characterized by neuroradiological means, and in particular MRI was of significant value in delineating the extension of the tumor within the spinal canal and its exophitic growth pattern. Pathologically, a well circumscribed tumor originating from the intradural filum terminale characteristically comprised both large and small cells, resembling mature and immature neuronal cells, respectively. In addition, two neuronal markers, i.e., chromogranin A (CGA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and other markers such as glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, HNK-1, tyrosine hydroxylase and beta 2-microgloblin were investigated immunohistochemically. We found that both neuronal cells expressed immunoreactivity for CGA and NSE, and small neuronal cells showed more intense CGA immunoreactivity, indicating an earlier stage of neuronal differentiation. Weakly positive immunoreactivity for HNK-1 was also demonstrated in small neuronal cells, consistent with evidence of maturation along a neuronal differentiation. From these findings a pathological diagnosis of ganglioneuroma was made. This unique group of ganglion-cell spinal tumors is reviewed in the literature and differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical features are discussed. (+info)
(4/228) Synaptic reorganization in the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral nerve neuroma formation: aberrant innervation of lamina II neurons by Abeta afferents.
Intracellular recording and extracellular field potential (FP) recordings were obtained from spinal cord dorsal horn neurons (laminae I-IV) in a rat transverse slice preparation with attached dorsal roots. To study changes in synaptic inputs after neuroma formation, the sciatic nerve was sectioned and ligated 3 weeks before in vitro electrophysiological analysis. Horseradish peroxidase labeling of dorsal root axons indicated that Abeta fibers sprouted into laminae I-II from deeper laminae after sciatic nerve section. FP recordings from dorsal horns of normal spinal cord slices revealed long-latency synaptic responses in lamina II and short-latency responses in lamina III. The latencies of synaptic FPs recorded in lamina II of the dorsal horn after sciatic nerve section were reduced. The majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded with intracellular microelectrodes from lamina II neurons in control slices were elicited by high-threshold nerve stimulation, whereas the majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded in lamina III were elicited by low-threshold nerve stimulation. After sciatic nerve section, 31 of 57 (54%) EPSPs recorded in lamina II were elicited by low-threshold stimulation. The majority of low-threshold EPSPs in lamina II neurons after axotomy displayed properties similar to low-threshold EPSPs in lamina III of control slices. These results indicate that reoccupation of lamina II synapses by sprouting Abeta fibers normally terminating in lamina III occurs after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. Furthermore, these observations indicate that the lamina II neurons receive inappropriate sensory information from low-threshold mechanoreceptor after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. (+info)
(5/228) Evaluation of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) in the detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours arising from within plexiform neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis 1.
OBJECTIVES: The ability of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) to detect malignant change in plexiform neurofibromas from patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) was evaluated. METHODS: Eighteen NF1 patients who presented with pain, increase in size, or neurological deficit associated with a plexiform neurofibroma were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging determined the site and extent of the lesion. Qualitative(18)FDG PET was performed and the standard uptake value (SUV) measured the regional glucose metabolism. Histological confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained in 10 patients. RESULTS: Twenty three plexiform neurofibromas were detected in 18 patients. Seven malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, four high grade and three low grade tumours, occurred in five patients. In one patient the clinical and radiological characteristics of the tumour suggested malignancy, but histology was inconclusive. Fifteen benign plexiform neurofibromas were identified in 12 patients and these findings were confirmed histologically in five lesions from four patients. Ten plexiform neurofibromas occurring in eight patients were considered benign on(18)FDG PET and the patients did not undergo surgery. They remained stable or their symptoms improved on clinical follow up (median 9 months). The results of qualitative (18)FDG PET were interpreted as indicating that 13 plexiform neurofibromas were benign and 10 were malignant. No malignant tumours were classified as benign, but two benign tumours were reported as malignant. The SUV was calculated for 20 tumours and was significantly higher in five malignant tumours 5.4 (SD 2.4), than in 15 benign tumours 1.54 (SD 0.7), p=0.002. There was an overlap between benign and malignant tumours in the SUV range 2.7-3.3. CONCLUSIONS: (18)FDG PET is helpful in determining malignant change in plexiform neurofibromas in NF1. Increased separation between benign and malignant lesions could be obtained by calculating the SUV at about 200 minutes after injection of (18)FDG, when the peak activity concentration is obtained in malignant tumours. (+info)
(6/228) Great auricular nerve: anatomy and imaging in a case of perineural tumor spread.
We present the imaging and clinical findings of a case of recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the face in which CT and MR imaging revealed perineural tumor spread along the great auricular nerve. The great auricular nerve is a superficial cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus, providing sensory innervation to the skin of the parotid and periauricular region. Our purpose was to familiarize the reader with the anatomy of this nerve and imaging's potential role in the diagnosis of perineural tumor spread along this seldom seen structure. (+info)
(7/228) Cryosurgery for chronic injuries of the cutaneous nerve in the upper limb. Analysis of a new open technique.
We have treated six patients with chronic pain following nerve injury using a cryosurgical probe. All had a significant return of hand function and improvement of pain during a mean follow-up of 13.5 months. Open visualisation of the injured nervous tissue is essential for patients undergoing this technique. Four patients regained normal sensation in the dermatome of the previously injured nerve. (+info)
(8/228) What are the CD34+ cells in benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors? Double immunostaining study of CD34 and S-100 protein.
To determine whether CD34 expression in nerve sheath lesions was found in a unique cell population or in a subset of nerve sheath cells, we performed double immunohistochemical staining using a standard avidinbiotin complex method with 2 separate color developing systems. We studied 40 neurofibromas and 16 neurilemomas. All lesions strongly expressed S-100 in nuclei and cytoplasm. CD34 was detected in cells having ameboid dendritic cytoplasm present in greatest numbers in Antoni B zones of neurilemomas, myxoid zones of neurofibromas, at the periphery of lobules in both tumor types, and condensed in apposition to perineurium. The CD34+ cells also were detected in normal nerves. They were infrequent in Antoni A zones of neurilemomas. No dual S-100 and CD34 expression was seen. This double immunostaining confirms the presence of a CD34-reactive non-Schwannian cell type in these neural neoplasms. As the CD34+, S-100-negative cell population is present also in normal nerves and infrequently seen in the areas of cellular neoplastic Schwann cells, CD34+, S-100-negative cells in peripheral nerve sheath tumors most likely are nonneoplastic and may have a supportive function. (+info)