(1/302) Effects on tooth movement of force delivery from nickel-titanium archwires.

The aim of this project was to determine the in vivo effects of tooth movement with nickel-titanium archwires on the periodontium during the early stages of orthodontic treatment. The extent of tooth movement, severity of gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow, and the amount of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the GCF of one maxillary canine in each of 33 patients treated with a pre-adjusted appliance were measured before and at four stages during the first 22 weeks of treatment. The methods involved the use of a reflex metrograph to determine the type of tooth movement and electrophoresis to quantitate the CS in the GCF. It was found that GCF flow increased after 4 weeks of tooth movement whereas the increase in the amount of CS in the GCF, which is taken to be indicative of periodontal tissue turnover, occurred at the later stage of 10 weeks. Teeth which showed the greatest amount of tooth movement continued to express large amounts of CS in large volumes of GCF until 22 weeks, whilst the CS levels in those teeth moving to a smaller extent declined. These data suggest that nickel-titanium archwires may produce a super-elastic plateau effect in vivo on canine teeth, which are initially displaced from the arch such that large amounts of tooth movement occur in the first 22 weeks of treatment.  (+info)

(2/302) Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

(3/302) Long-term follow-up of maxillary incisors with severe apical root resorption.

The purpose of the study was to analyse the mobility of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption, at follow-up several years after active treatment, and to evaluate mobility in relation to root length and alveolar bone support. Seventy-three maxillary incisors were examined in 20 patients, 10-15 years after active treatment in 13 patients (age 24-32 years) and 5-10 years after active treatment in seven patients (age 20-25 years). All had worn fixed or removable retainers; seven still had bonded twistflex retainers. Total root length and intra-alveolar root length were measured on intra-oral radiographs. Tooth mobility was assessed clinically according to Miller's Index (0-4) and the Periotest method. Crestal alveolar bone level, periodontal pocket depth, gingival, and plaque indices, occlusal contacts during occlusion and function, and dental wear were recorded. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between tooth mobility, and total root length and intra-alveolar root length. No correlation was found between tooth mobility and retention with twistflex retainers. None of the variables for assessment of periodontal status, occlusion and function were related to total root length or tooth mobility. It is concluded that there is a risk of tooth mobility in a maxillary incisor that undergoes severe root resorption during orthodontic treatment, if the remaining total root length is < or = 9 mm. The risk is less if the remaining root length is > 9 mm. Follow-up of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption is indicated.  (+info)

(4/302) A comparison between written, verbal, and videotape oral hygiene instruction for patients with fixed appliances.

The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of written, videotape, and one-to-one instruction upon the knowledge, oral hygiene standard, and gingival health of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with a lower fixed appliance. Subjects for whom fixed appliances had been fitted recently were divided randomly into three groups of 21, 22, and 22, respectively. Group 1 received written oral hygiene instruction, group 2 a specially made videotape, and group 3 saw a hygienist for one-to-one instruction. Results were assessed in terms of improvement in knowledge concerning oral hygiene procedures, and of plaque and gingival index scores. Analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects or interactions at P = 0.05, although the difference in the plaque index scores before and after instruction was close to significance.  (+info)

(5/302) Disease activity and need for dental care in a capitation plan based on risk assessment.

This article describes a capitation model of care which would stimulate both dentists and patients to apply existing preventive knowledge.  (+info)

(6/302) Periodontal diseases among Quebec adults aged 35 to 44 years.

BACKGROUND: Very little information is available on periodontal diseases in Canadian adults. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontal problems in Quebec adults aged 35 to 44. METHODS: A total of 2,110 randomly selected Quebec adults were examined between September 1994 and July 1995. The participation rate was 77% for the questionnaire and 44.5% for the oral examination. Measurements for gingival bleeding, calculus, epithelial attachment and periodontal pocket depths were taken for each tooth. RESULTS: More than 80% of examined persons presented with gingival bleeding on at least one tooth, and 75% presented with calculus on at least one tooth. The CPITN indicated that only 5.2% of individuals had no treatment needs, and that one out of 5 necessitated complex treatment. People with low family income, men and persons living in metropolitan areas are at higher risk of having at least one tooth with a pocket >6 mm. Dental health behaviours (regular dental visits, brushing and flossing frequency) were not significantly associated with the presence of periodontal pockets. Finally, individuals were relatively unaware of their periodontal problems. CONCLUSION: Increasing the population s awareness of periodontal diseases will be a major task for public health workers. The dental profession and the dental industry need to develop awareness campaigns to improve prevention, management and control of periodontal problems. It is especially important to target people at risk, in particular men and low-income groups. As well, dental schools and continuing education courses should focus on this problem with the aim of modifying dental practices.  (+info)

(7/302) The oral cleanliness and periodontal health of UK adults in 1998.

Periodontal disease continues to be a major concern for dentists and patients. This paper reports the findings of the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health survey in relation to plaque, calculus, periodontal pocketing and loss of attachment. It is apparent from this study that moderate periodontal disease remains commonplace amongst UK adults and that the associated risk factors of plaque and calculus are in abundance, even amongst those who profess to be motivated about their oral health and attend the dentist regularly. The continued high prevalence of disease needs to be seen in the context of the far larger number of people who are now potentially at some risk, particularly in the older age groups, because of improvements in tooth retention. However, the cumulative effect of disease means that control of the periodontal diseases, even mild and slowly progressing disease, will be a key issue if large numbers of teeth are to be retained into old age. If that level of control is to be achieved we need a widespread improvement in our management of the disease, particularly in our ability to improve the oral cleanliness of the UK population.  (+info)

(8/302) Periodontal health of London women during early pregnancy.

OBJECTIVES: A descriptive cross-sectional study to determine the severity of periodontal disease in early pregnancy and its relation to demographic variables in a South East London population. METHODS: 2,027 pregnant women attending Guy's Hospital for an ultrasound scan at 10 to 14 weeks gestation were assessed. Data were collected via questionnaire and periodontal examination, including plaque and bleeding scores, pocket probing depth and loss of attachment. RESULTS: Mean age was 29.8 years (sd 5.5). Of these, 61.8% were white, 28.5% black, and 9.7% of other ethnic group. A total of 15% reported smoking during pregnancy. The mean number of teeth present was 28 (sd 2) per subject, mean percentage of sites with plaque present was 60.5% (sd 22.6), mean pocket depth was 2.0 mm (sd 0.4), mean loss of attachment was 0.4 mm (sd 0.3), and the mean percentage of sites bleeding on probing was 20.2% (sd 16.3). Linear regression demonstrated that probing depth was related to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and plaque score but not to smoking whereas loss of attachment demonstrated relationships with age, smoking status and plaque score but not ethnicity or socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: There was a relatively high proportion of subjects with deep periodontal pockets in this pregnant population compared to the Adult Dental Health Survey 1998 but with similar levels of loss of attachment and percentage of sites with plaque present. Several demographic factors were associated with the level of periodontal disease in this population.  (+info)