Direct detection of Prevotella intermedia and P. nigrescens in suppurative oral infection by amplification of 16S rRNA gene.
A specific 16S rDNA PCR and subsequent hybridisation reaction was designed to discriminate between strains of Prevotella intermedia (n = 15) and P. nigrescens (n = 15). This technique was then used to detect the presence of these two bacterial species in acute suppurative oral infection. A total of 36 pus samples aspirated from 26 peri-apical abscesses, three root canals, three periodontal abscesses, two cases of refractory periodontitis, one cyst and one haematoma was examined. A portion of the pus sample was processed by PCR and the remainder of the specimen was subjected to routine culture. The PCR-based technique gave an identical pattern of detection of P. intermedia or P. nigrescens to that obtained by culture for 30 of the 36 specimens. Either P. intermedia or P. nigrescens was present in 14 samples and neither species was detected in 16 samples. In the remaining six samples the PCR method indicated the presence of one (n = 3) or both (n = 3) of the Prevotella species but neither or only one species was isolated by culture. It is concluded that the presence of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens in pus can be detected rapidly and specifically by direct PCR amplification of 16S rDNA. P. nigrescens was detected more frequently than P. intermedia in suppurative peri-apical infection both by culture and PCR. (+info)
Are antibiotics being used appropriately for emergency dental treatment?
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic prescribing of antibiotics to patients presenting for emergency dental treatment. DESIGN: A prospective clinical study. METHOD: Information was collected via a questionnaire concerning the patient's reason for attendance and treatment undertaken at emergency dental clinics in North and South Cheshire. RESULTS: Over an 11-week period 1,069 patients attended the five clinics, 1,011 questionnaires were analyzed. The majority of the attendees had pain (879/1011). 35% (311/879) of these patient had pulpitis and 74% (230/311) had been issued a prescription for antibiotics, without any active surgical intervention. Th principal antibiotic prescribed for both adult and child patients was amoxicillin. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients attending the emergency dental clinics had pain, with a large proportion having localised infections either as pulpitis or localised dental abscess. Three quarters of these patients had no surgical intervention and were inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. (+info)
Periodontal bacteria in rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses.
Despite the high incidence of odontogenic abscesses in pet rabbits, published data on the bacteriology of these infections are lacking, and clinical cultures are often ambiguous, making antibiotic choices difficult. In order to define the bacteriology of these infections, 12 rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. All specimens yielded pathogenic bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii, and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. These organisms are consistent with the characterized bacteriology of periodontal disease in human and other mammalian studies. The isolates were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat rabbits; 100% of the strains tested were susceptible to clindamycin, 96% were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone, 54% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and only 7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (+info)
In vitro activity of moxifloxacin against bacteria isolated from odontogenic abscesses.
We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 87 pathogens isolated from 37 patients with odontogenic abscesses. The most prevalent bacteria were viridans group streptococci and Prevotella species. Considering all bacterial isolates, 100% were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 98% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and to levofloxacin, 76% were susceptible to doxycycline, 75% were susceptible to clindamycin, and 69% were susceptible to penicillin. (+info)
Descending necrotising mediastinitis rarely develops and this variety of mediastinitis is a highly lethal disease. A case is reported of descending necrotising mediastinitis caused by an odontogenic infection. The importance is emphasised of prompt diagnosis and aggressive surgical mediastinal drainage for the survival of these patients. Most acute mediastinal infections result from oesophageal perforation, either secondary to oesophagoscopy or tumour erosion. Mediastinitis occasionally develops as descending necrotising mediastinitis originating from the complications of cervical or odontogenic infections. Descending necrotising mediastinitis usually has a fulminant course, leading commonly to sepsis and death. (+info)
Supernumerary premolars associated with dens evaginatus: report of 2 cases.
Dens evaginatus is a dental anomaly found predominantly in people of Mongoloid origin. Dentists practising in Western countries should also be aware of this condition because of the increasing migration of people from Asia. Supernumerary premolars are uncommon but may be found incidentally during radiographic examination of teeth with dens evaginatus. This article reports 2 cases of concomitant occurrence of supernumerary premolars and dens evaginatus. The presence of a supernumerary premolar in 1 quadrant is an indication for radiographic examination of all other premolar regions. (+info)
Management of odontogenic infection of pulpal and periodontal origin.
The dental biofilm is a complex bacterial ecosystem that undergoes evolution, maturing and development, and thus leads to odontogenic infection. The infection is normally located in the tissues of the dental organ itself, and follows a chronic course of evolution. However, bacterial pathogens express virulence factors in the biofilm, and this together with changes in host immunity, may cause clinical exacerbations and spread of infection to other areas of the body. Odontogenic infection management should take into consideration the fact that therapeutic success lies in the control of the infectious aetiologic agent, using mechanical-surgical debridement and/or antimicrobial therapy. Debridement techniques have a fundamentally quantitative effect (by reducing the size of the inoculum) and therefore if these techniques are used alone to control infection, despite an initial clinical improvement that is sometimes prematurely considered as therapeutic success, odontopathogens may persist and the process may recur or become chronic. Microbiological examination may be helpful in defining therapeutic success in a more reliable way, it could define the prognosis of recurrence more precisely, and could enable the most appropriate antibiotic to be selected, thus increasing therapeutic efficacy. Antimicrobial therapy brings about a quantitative and qualitative change in the bacterial composition of the biofilm, in addition to being able to act on sites that are inaccessible through mechanical debridement. However, incorrect antimicrobial use can lead to a selection of resistant bacterial species in the biofilm, in addition to side effects and ecological alterations in the host. In order to minimise this risk, and obtain maximum antimicrobial effect, we need to know in which clinical situations their use is indicated, and the efficacy of different antibiotics with regard to bacteria isolated in odontogenic infection. (+info)
Spread of infectious complications of odontogenic abscess detected by technetium-99m-HMPAO-labeled WBC scan of occult sepsis in the intensive care unit.
We report a rare case of odontogenic abscess, detected while the patient was in the intensive care unit (ICU), which resulted in sepsis and the patient's death due to mediastinitis, skull osteomyelitis, and deep neck cellulitis. The detection of infectious focus in occult sepsis in ICUs is usually difficult because many diagnostic procedures cannot be conveniently performed. The use of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime-labeled white blood cells scan allowed accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical drainage. (+info)