(1/2178) The impact of Alcohol and Alcoholism among substance abuse journals.
This article concerns the question of journal impact factor and other bibliometric indicators made available by the Institute for Scientific Information in their Journal Citation Report for 1996. The impact factors of journals within the subject category 'substance abuse' are listed along with total citations, immediacy indices, and cited half-lives. The relationship between cited and citing journals is discussed with the main focus on the data available for Alcohol and Alcoholism. Some of the problems and limitations of bibliometric measures of productivity are dealt with, especially when these are used to evaluate the work of individual scientists. Although bibliometric measures are easy to compute, they become difficult to interpret, such as when dealing with collaborative research and the problem posed by multiple authorship. The need to adjust impact factors and citation counts for the number of co-authors in a paper becomes important when credit has to be attributed to one individual from a multi-author paper. This is often necessary in connection with grant applications and when making decisions about academic promotion and tenure. The impact factor of Alcohol and Alcoholism has increased steadily over the past 5 years, even after adjusting for the number of self-citations, which resulted in an even greater increase in impact. However, the impact factors of substance abuse journals are generally low, compared with disciplines such as immunology, genetics, and biochemistry. Some suggestions are made for increasing the impact factors of substance abuse journals if this is considered necessary. But instead of paying attention to the impact factor of a journal, scientists should give more consideration to the speed and efficiency of the editorial handling of their manuscripts and particularly to the quality and timeliness of the peer review. (+info)
(2/2178) Race in the "decade of the brain".
Despite NIMH efforts to facilitate the study of women and minorities in federally funded schizophrenia research, there is a significant lack of information about race differences in brain morphology and neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. A review of three major psychiatric journals between 1994 and 1996 revealed that only 14 (2.8%) of 502 schizophrenia articles reported the results of race analyses. Only 84 (16.7%) even reported the racial composition of the study sample. The study of race differences in schizophrenia, although fraught with methodological complexity and social/political tension, is necessary to prevent inappropriate generalization of research results across racial groups. (+info)
(3/2178) Lessons from a review of publications in three health promotion journals from 1989 to 1994.
A thematic analysis was undertaken of 72 editorials in three leading health promotion journals, Health Education Research: Theory & Practice, Health Education Quarterly and Health Promotion International, from 1989 to 1994. The three main themes which emerged were (1) the need to broaden health promotion interventions, (2) the need to promote rigour and professionalism in the discipline of health promotion, and (3) the need to respond to the information requirements of practitioners. Against this context, we conducted a content analysis of the journals, examining the nature of the 649 peer-reviewed publications in the same time period. Categories from the traditional bio-medical 'stages of research' models had to be adapted before full classification of articles published was feasible. The largest number of articles published could be termed descriptive research, followed by studies developing and validating health promotion measurement tools and health promotion theory. The proportion of program evaluations was small and the proportion of randomized controlled trials ('highest quality evidence' of effectiveness) decreased over time. Dissemination studies were also poorly represented in spite of this being identified in editorials as an important professional need. Ways to redress some of the imbalances observed are discussed. (+info)
(4/2178) Clinical Microbiology Reviews: genesis of a journal.
In 1986 planning for a new ASM review journal, Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR), began. CMR would publish articles primarily of interest to persons concerned with pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, and control of human and veterinary pathogens. The first issue was published in January 1988, with quarterly publication since then. The journal quickly became successful in terms of subscribers and impact on the field, earning a strong national and international reputation. The achievements of CMR are owed to many persons, including the editorial board, the production team, and especially the contributing authors. (+info)
(5/2178) Brandon/Hill selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.
The interrelationship of print and electronic media in the hospital library and its relevance to the "Brandon/Hill Selected List" in 1999 are addressed in the updated list (eighteenth version) of 627 books and 145 journals. This list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-size library in a hospital or similar facility. More realistically, it can function as a core collection for a library consortium. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Due to continuing requests from librarians, a "minimal core" book collection consisting of 82 titles has been pulled out from the 214 asterisked (*) initial-purchase books and marked with daggers ([symbol: see text]). To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1999 journal subscriptions would require $114,900. The cost of only the asterisked items, books and journals, totals $49,100. The "minimal core" book collection costs $13,200. (+info)
(6/2178) The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.
Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. (+info)
(7/2178) Tolerance in a rigorous science.
Scientists often evaluate other people's theories by the same standards they apply to their own work; it is as though scientists may believe that these criteria are independent of their own personal priorities and standards. As a result of this probably implicit belief, they sometimes may make less useful judgments than they otherwise might if they were able and willing to evaluate a specific theory at least partly in terms of the standards appropriate to that theory. Journal editors can play an especially constructive role in managing this diversity of standards and opinion. (+info)
(8/2178) Preventing weight gain in adults: the pound of prevention study.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether weight gain with age could be prevented through the use of a low-intensity intervention. METHODS: Participants, 228 men and 998 women recruited from diverse sources, were randomized to one of the following groups: (1) no-contact control, (2) education through monthly newsletters, or (3) education plus incentives for participation. All participants were weighed and completed questionnaires about behaviors and attitudes related to weight at baseline and annually for 3 years thereafter. RESULTS: Individuals in intervention groups reported favorable changes over time in frequency of weighting and healthy dieting practices relative to those in the control group. These behavior changes were in turn related to a reduced rate of weight gain over time. However, weight gain over 3 years did not differ significantly by treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: This low-intensity educational approach to weight gain prevention sustained interest over a lengthy time period and was associated positively with behavior change, but it was not strong enough to significantly reduce weight gain with age. (+info)