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(1/359) Penetrating sledding injuries to the lower torso--2 case reports.

Sledding accidents are frequent and vary in severity. Penetrating sledding injuries are uncommon but may be devastating. Snow-racers--sleds with both steering and braking devices--may be associated with an increased rate of injury. The authors present 2 cases of lower-torso penetrating trauma associated with the use of snow-racers. Both cases involved penetration--of the perineum in one case and the inguinal area in the other--by wooden sticks. Both patients recovered fully after prompt surgical intervention. The authors suggest that the absence of a protective panel at the front of the snow-racer may result in the sledder's lower torso being more exposed to objects encountered while sledding. The injuries reported raise concerns about the safety of modern sleds and the possibility that design changes are needed.  (+info)

(2/359) Gonococcal urethral stricture and watering-can perineum.

A total of sixteen patients with urethral stricture and/or perineal urinary fistulae (water-can perineum) complicating gonorrhoea were seen at the Special Treatment Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The patients were aged between 25 and 80 years, and the latent period between the time of original attack of gonococcal infection and the development of complications varied from 4 to 50 years. The rate of divorce or marital separation is high among these patients with late sequelae of gonorrhoea. The factors responsible for the present higher incidence of early and late complications of gonorrhoea among patients in Nigeria and other tropical countries compared with their counterparts in Europe and North American include: (a) Lack of medical facilities in most rural areas; (b) Inadequate treatment of veneral diseases, including the urban areas where self-medication is practised on a large scale by the general population; (c) Illiteracy and ignorance of venereal diseases. The cases of watering-can perineum reported here, and the subsequent chronic pyelonephritis and hypertension, reinforce the plea for early and energetic treatment of acute gonorrhoea in Africa as well as large-scale control measures by the health authorities.  (+info)

(3/359) Demodicosis in an American bison.

An 18-month-old, male American bison (Bison bison) was presented with 7- to 9-mm size nodules periorbital, perineal, and on the ventral surface of the tail. Demodex spp. were identified from the exudate by microscopic examination. Examination 6 mo later revealed that the infestation had nearly cleared without treatment.  (+info)

(4/359) Decision analysis as an aid to determining the management of early low rectal cancer for the individual patient.

PURPOSE: Because there are no data available from randomized controlled trials (RCT), a decision analysis was performed to aid in the decision of which option, a local excision with or without radiotherapy or an abdominal perineal resection (APR), should be offered to medically fit patients with early (suspected T1/T2) low (< 5 cm) rectal cancer. METHODS: All clinically relevant outcomes, including complications of surgery and radiotherapy, cure, salvageability after local recurrence, distant disease, and death, were modeled for both options. The probabilities of complications and outcomes after radiotherapy and/or local excision were derived from weighted averages of results from studies conducted between 1969 and 1997. The probabilities for the APR option were extracted from relevant RCTs. Long- and short-term patient-centered utilities for each complication and outcome were extracted from the literature and from expert opinion. RESULTS: The expected utility of local excision (EU = 0.81) for the base case was higher than the expected utility for APR (EU = 0.78). Although the result was sensitive to all variables, local excision was always favored over APR within the plausible ranges of the variables taken one, two, or three at a time. The model illustrated the tension between the patient's perception of a colostomy and the higher recurrence rates with local excision. CONCLUSION: The results of this decision analysis suggest that local therapy for early low rectal cancer is the preferred method of treatment. However, there must be careful preoperative assessment, patient selection, and consideration of patient concerns. In addition, decision analysis may be useful in providing patient information and assisting in decision making.  (+info)

(5/359) Translabial color Doppler for imaging in urogynecology: a preliminary report.

OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the use of color Doppler ultrasound in the investigation of female urinary incontinence. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients underwent a full urodynamic assessment and translabial ultrasound examination using color Doppler-capable equipment with 5-7-MHz curved array transducers, both in the supine and in the erect positions. RESULTS: More than minimal leakage was seen in 13 patients by Doppler and in 16 by fluoroscopic imaging. Results were in agreement in 28/37 cases (kappa 0.49). The observed discrepancies may have been due to initial technical difficulties, differences in bladder filling and the presence of a catheter on fluoroscopic imaging. In five incontinent patients, urethral flow velocities ranged from 0.064 to 0.34 m/s, which is equivalent to physiological venous and slow arterial blood flow and one to two orders of magnitude above the detection threshold of standard Doppler ultrasound equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Translabial color Doppler imaging of the lower urinary tract allows the documentation of fluid leakage from the bladder. It has the potential to become the new imaging standard for urogynecology.  (+info)

(6/359) Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between midline episiotomy and postpartum anal incontinence. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with three study arms and six months of follow up. SETTING: University teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Primiparous women who vaginally delivered a live full term, singleton baby between 1 August 1996 and 8 February 1997: 209 who received an episiotomy; 206 who did not receive an episiotomy but experienced a second, third, or fourth degree spontaneous perineal laceration; and 211 who experienced either no laceration or a first degree perineal laceration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported faecal and flatus incontinence at three and six months postpartum. RESULTS: Women who had episiotomies had a higher risk of faecal incontinence at three (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 16.2) and six (3.7, 0.9 to 15.6) months postpartum compared with women with an intact perineum. Compared with women with a spontaneous laceration, episiotomy tripled the risk of faecal incontinence at three months (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9) and six months (0.7 to 11.2) postpartum, and doubled the risk of flatus incontinence at three months (1.3 to 3.4) and six months (1.2 to 3.7) postpartum. A non-extending episiotomy (that is, second degree surgical incision) tripled the risk of faecal incontinence (1.1 to 9.0) and nearly doubled the risk of flatus incontinence (1.0 to 3.0) at three months postpartum compared with women who had a second degree spontaneous tear. The effect of episiotomy was independent of maternal age, infant birth weight, duration of second stage of labour, use of obstetric instrumentation during delivery, and complications of labour. CONCLUSIONS: Midline episiotomy is not effective in protecting the perineum and sphincters during childbirth and may impair anal continence.  (+info)

(7/359) Prospective study of talc use and ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: Perineal talc use has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in a number of case-control studies; however, this association remains controversial because of limited supporting biologic evidence and the potential for recall bias or selection bias in case-control studies. In this study, we conducted a prospective analysis of perineal talc use and the risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Study is a prospective study of 121 700 female registered nurses in the United States who were aged 30-55 years at enrollment in 1976. Talc use was ascertained in 1982 by use of a self-administered questionnaire: after exclusions, 78 630 women formed the cohort for analysis. Three hundred seven epithelial ovarian cancers subsequently diagnosed in this cohort through June 1, 1996, were confirmed by medical record review and met inclusion criteria. Proportional hazards models by use of pooled logistic regression were used to derive relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: In 1982, 40.4% (n = 31 789) of the cohort reported ever using talc, and 14.5% (n = 11 411) reported ever using talc daily. We observed no overall association with ever talc use and epithelial ovarian cancer (multivariate RR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.86-1.37) and no increase in risk of ovarian cancer with increasing frequency of use. There was a modest elevation in risk for ever talc use and invasive serous ovarian cancer (multivariate RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.02-1.91). The risk of epithelial ovarian cancer for talc users was not greater among women who had never had a tubal ligation (multivariate RR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.71-1.32). CONCLUSION: Our results provide little support for any substantial association between perineal talc use and ovarian cancer risk overall; however, perineal talc use may modestly increase the risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(8/359) Perianal streptococcal dermatitis.

Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is a bright red, sharply demarcated rash that is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Symptoms include perianal rash, itching and rectal pain; blood-streaked stools may also be seen in one third of patients. It primarily occurs in children between six months and 10 years of age and is often misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. A rapid streptococcal test of suspicious areas can confirm the diagnosis. Routine skin culture is an alternative diagnostic aid. Treatment with amoxicillin or penicillin is effective. Follow-up is necessary, because recurrences are common.  (+info)