Polyol formation and NADPH-dependent reductases in dog retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells.
PURPOSE: Dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose experience retinal vascular changes similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy, with selective pericyte loss as an initial lesion. In the present study the relationship among reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reductases, polyol formation, and flux through the polyol pathway in cultured dog retinal capillary cells were investigated. METHODS: Pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured from retina of beagle dogs. NADPH-dependent reductases were characterized by chromatofocusing after gel filtration. Sugars in cultured cells were analyzed by gas chromatography, and flux through the polyol pathway was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as a substrate. The presence of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in these cells was examined by northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct peaks corresponding to aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase, the latter being dominant, were observed in pericytes by chromatofocusing. Culture in medium containing either 10 mM D-galactose or 30 mM D-glucose resulted in the accumulation of sugar alcohol in pericytes that was markedly reduced by aldose reductase inhibitors. 19F NMR spectra obtained from pericytes cultured for 5 days in medium containing 2 mM 3FG displayed the marked accumulation of 3-fluoro-deoxysorbitol but not 3-fluoro-deoxyfructose. No 3FG metabolism was observed in similarly cultured endothelial cells. With northern blot analysis, aldose reductase was detected in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was below the detectable limit in pericytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Aldose, aldehyde, and glyceraldehyde reductases are present in dog retinal capillary pericytes, with aldehyde reductase being the major reductase present. Polyol accumulation easily occurs in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. (+info
Activation of microvascular pericytes in autoimmune Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the temporal and spatial relationship between platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGFbeta) receptors, PDGF-AB/BB, and activated pericytes across the Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) disease spectrum. METHODS: Monoclonal antibodies against PDGFbeta receptors, PDGF-AB/BB, and high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), a marker for activated pericytes, were used to immunohistochemically analyze serial sections of skin biopsy tissue from patients with RP and from scleroderma patients. To delineate cell-specific PDGFbeta receptor expression, double immunofluorescence-stained sections were analyzed using computer-aided image analysis and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: PDGFbeta receptor-expressing cells and HMW-MAA-expressing pericytes were found in biopsy samples from autoimmune RP patients and in both early fibrotic and early nonfibrotic scleroderma skin, but not in normal or primary RP or late-stage scleroderma skin. PDGF-AB/BB was expressed within the epidermis, at the epidermal/dermal junction, and by dermal macrophages. Analysis of juxtaposed serial sections revealed an increased frequency of receptor expression in microvessels from autoimmune RP and early scleroderma skin (P < 0.01). Double-labeling studies using confocal microscopy showed that, in vivo, PDGFbeta receptors were predominantly expressed by microvascular pericytes from both autoimmune RP and early scleroderma skin. CONCLUSION: PDGFbeta receptors are expressed by activated microvascular pericytes in patients with autoimmune RP and in early SSc patients, but not in those with primary RP or late-stage scleroderma. These findings suggest that features of autoimmune RP are distinct from those of primary RP, and that microvascular pericytes may be an important link between chronic microvascular damage and fibrosis. (+info
Role of PDGF-B and PDGFR-beta in recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes during embryonic blood vessel formation in the mouse.
Development of a vascular system involves the assembly of two principal cell types - endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells/pericytes (vSMC/PC) - into many different types of blood vessels. Most, if not all, vessels begin as endothelial tubes that subsequently acquire a vSMC/PC coating. We have previously shown that PDGF-B is critically involved in the recruitment of pericytes to brain capillaries and to the kidney glomerular capillary tuft. Here, we used desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) as markers to analyze vSMC/PC development in PDGF-B-/- and PDGFR-beta-/- embryos. Both mutants showed a site-specific reduction of desmin-positive pericytes and ASMA-positive vSMC. We found that endothelial expression of PDGF-B was restricted to immature capillary endothelial cells and to the endothelium of growing arteries. BrdU labeling showed that PDGFR-beta-positive vSMC/PC progenitors normally proliferate at sites of endothelial PDGF-B expression. In PDGF-B-/- embryos, limb arterial vSMC showed a reduced BrdU-labeling index. This suggests a role of PDGF-B in vSMC/PC cell proliferation during vascular growth. Two modes of vSMC recruitment to newly formed vessels have previously been suggested: (1) de novo formation of vSMC by induction of undifferentiated perivascular mesenchymal cells, and (2) co-migration of vSMC from a preexisting pool of vSMC. Our data support both modes of vSMC/PC development and lead to a model in which PDGFR-beta-positive vSMC/PC progenitors initially form around certain vessels by PDGF-B-independent induction. Subsequent angiogenic sprouting and vessel enlargement involves PDGF-B-dependent vSMC/PC progenitor co-migration and proliferation, and/or PDGF-B-independent new induction of vSMC/PC, depending on tissue context. (+info
PDGFB regulates the development of the labyrinthine layer of the mouse fetal placenta.
PDGFB is a growth factor which is vital for the completion of normal prenatal development. In this study, we report the phenotypic analysis of placentas from mouse conceptuses that lack a functional PDGFB or PDGFRbeta gene. Placentas of both types of mutant exhibit changes in the labyrinthine layer, including dilated embryonic blood vessels and reduced numbers of both pericytes and trophoblasts. These changes are seen from embryonic day (E) 13.5, which coincides with the upregulation of PDGFB mRNA levels in normal placentas. By E17, modifications in shape, size, and number of the fetal blood vessels in the mutant placentas cause an abnormal ratio of the surface areas between the fetal and the maternal blood vessels in the labyrinthine layer. Our data suggest that PDGFB acts locally to contribute to the development of the labyrinthine layer of the fetal placenta and the formation of a proper nutrient-waste exchange system during fetal development. We point out that the roles of PDGFB/Rbeta signaling in the placenta may be analogous to those in the developing kidney, by controlling pericytes in the labyrinthine layer and mesangial cells in the kidney. (+info
Effect of glucose on endothelin-1-induced calcium transients in cultured bovine retinal pericytes.
Published work has shown that endothelin-1-induced contractility of bovine retinal pericytes is reduced after culture in high concentrations of glucose. The purpose of the present study was to establish the profile of endothelin-1-induced calcium transients in pericytes and to identify changes occurring after culture in high concentrations of glucose. Glucose had no effect on basal levels of cytosolic calcium or on endothelin-1-induced calcium release from intracellular stores. However, influx of calcium from the extracellular medium after endothelin-1 stimulation was reduced in pericytes that had been cultured in 25 mM D-glucose. L-type Ca(2+) currents were identified by patch clamping. The L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist, (-)-Bay K8644, caused less influx of calcium from the extracellular medium in pericytes that had been cultured in 25 mM D-glucose than in those cultured with 5 mM D-glucose. However, 3-O-methylglucose, a nonmetabolizable analogue of glucose which can cause glycation, had similar effects to those of high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that reduced function of the L-type Ca(2+) channel that occurs in bovine retinal pericytes after culture in high concentrations of D-glucose is probably due to glycation of a channel protein. (+info
Remodeling of retinal capillaries in the diabetic hypertensive rat.
PURPOSE: To document the effect of sustained systemic hypertension on the integrity and ultrastructural morphology of retinal capillaries in diabetic and nondiabetic rats. METHODS: Normotensive (strain Wistar-Kyoto; WKY) and genetically hypertensive (spontaneously hypertensive; SHR) rats were rendered diabetic by intravenous streptozotocin injection. At 20 weeks of diabetes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and extracellular matrix were evaluated by ultrastructural morphometry. Serum albumin was localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: The endothelial cell layer was markedly thinner in the diabetic normotensive animals. The number of intercellular junctions was reduced in both the nondiabetic and diabetic hypertensive group but less so in the diabetic normotensive group. No significant endothelial cell loss was noted in either of the experimental groups, whereas the number of pericytes and the number of their cytoplasmic processes were reduced in diabetic and hypertensive animals. Significant thickening of the basement membrane and increased permeability to serum albumin were observed in diabetic and hypertensive rats and were strongly enhanced in the combined diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial thinning and shape changes from an elaborate to a simpler form as well as rounding up of the pericytes and loosening of their vascular sheaths indicate remodeling of the vascular wall during chronic diabetes and sustained hypertension, before a characteristic vasculopathy becomes manifest. The combination of diabetes and hypertension enhances these features, as well as basement membrane thickening and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. (+info
In vivo prediction of vascular susceptibility to vascular susceptibility endothelial growth factor withdrawal: magnetic resonance imaging of C6 rat glioma in nude mice.
One of the hallmarks of tumor neovasculature is the prevalence of immature vessels manifested by the low degree of recruitment of vascular mural cells such as pericytes and smooth muscle cells. This difference in the architecture of the vascular bed provides an important therapeutic window for inflicting tumor-selective vascular damage. Here we demonstrate the application of gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for noninvasive in vivo mapping of vascular maturation, manifested by the ability of mature vessels to dilate in response to elevated levels of CO2. Histological alpha-actin staining showed a match between dilating vessels detected by MRI and vessels coated with smooth muscle cells. Switchable, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-overexpressing tumors (C6-pTET-VEGF rat glioma s.c. tumors in nude mice) displayed high vascular function and significant vascular damage upon VEGF withdrawal. However, damage was restricted to nondilating vessels, whereas mature dilating tumor vessels were resistant to VEGF withdrawal. Thus, MRI provides in vivo visualization of vascular maturity and prognosis of vascular obliteration induced by VEGF withdrawal. (+info
Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the optic nerves of rat eyes with chronic moderately elevated intraocular pressure.
PURPOSE: To investigate the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) in the optic nerve heads of rats with chronic moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) contributes to neurotoxicity of the retinal ganglion cells, the presence of the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was determined in the tissue. METHODS: Unilateral chronic moderately elevated IOP was produced in rats by cautery of three episcleral vessels. Histologic sections of optic nerves from eyes with normal IOP and with chronic moderately elevated IOP were studied by immunohistochemistry and by immunoblot analysis. Polyclonal antibodies to NOS-1, NOS-2, NOS-3, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were localized with immunoperoxidase. RESULTS: In the optic nerve of rat eyes with normal IOP, NOS-1 was constitutively present in astrocytes, pericytes and nerve terminals in the walls of the central artery. NOS-2 was not present in eyes with normal IOP. In these eyes, NOS-3 was constitutively present in the vascular endothelia of large and small vessels. Rat eyes treated with three-vessel cautery had sustained elevated IOP (1.6 fold) for at least 3 months. In these eyes, no obvious changes in NOS-1 or NOS-3 were noted. However, at time points as early as 4 days of chronic moderately elevated IOP, NOS-2 appeared in astrocytes in the optic nerve heads of these eyes and persisted for up to 3 months. Immunoblot analysis did not detect differences in NOS isoforms. CONCLUSION: The cellular distributions of constitutive NOS isoforms in the rat optic nerve suggest physiological roles for NO in this tissue. NOS-1 in astrocytes may produce NO as a mediator between neighboring cells. NO, produced by NOS-1 in pericytes and nitrergic nerve terminals and by NOS-3 in vascular endothelia, is probably a physiological vasodilator in this tissue. In eyes with chronic moderately elevated IOP, NOS-2 is apparently induced in astrocytes. The excessive NO production that is associated with this isoform may contribute to the neurotoxicity of the retinal ganglion cells in eyes with chronic moderately elevated IOP. (+info