(1/175) Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function after pericardiectomy in patients with constrictive pericarditis: Doppler echocardiographic findings and correlation with clinical status.
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function after pericardiectomy in patients with constrictive pericarditis and correlated postoperative Doppler echocardiographic findings with clinical status. BACKGROUND: Despite the efficacy of pericardiectomy, some patients with constrictive pericarditis fail to improve postoperatively. Data on serial evaluation of systolic and diastolic function after pericardiectomy and its relation to clinical status are not available. METHODS: From 1985 to 1995, a total of 58 patients with constrictive pericarditis underwent pericardiectomy and had at least one follow-up Doppler echocardiographic study with a respirometer: 23 patients had one examination within 3 months postoperatively, 19 had a study within 3 months and another one more than 3 months postoperatively, and 16 had one study more than 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: In the early postoperative period, diastolic function was normal in 17 patients (40.5%), restrictive in 17 (40.5%), and constrictive in 8 (19%). Among 19 patients who had serial Doppler echocardiography, in 2 patients with restrictive physiology and 5 with constrictive physiology the results had become normal, and 1 patient who had had constrictive physiology had restrictive findings. In late follow-up, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter increased compared with preoperative measurement (p = 0.0009). Diastolic filling pattern at late follow-up was normal in 20 patients (57%), restrictive in 12 (34%) and constrictive in 3 (9%). There was a significant relationship between diastolic filling patterns and symptomatic status (chi2 = 20.9, p < 0.0001). Patients with persistent abnormal diastolic filling on Doppler echocardiography had had symptoms for a longer time preoperatively than did patients with normal diastolic physiology (p = 0.0471). CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic filling characteristics remain abnormal in a substantial number of patients with constrictive pericarditis after pericardiectomy. These abnormalities may resolve gradually but can persist. Diastolic filling abnormalities after pericardiectomy correlate well with clinical symptoms and tend to occur in patients who have had symptoms longer preoperatively. This finding supports the recommendation that pericardiectomy be performed promptly in symptomatic patients with constrictive pericarditis. (+info)
(2/175) Localized pericarditis with calcifications mimicking a pericardial tumor.
A 62-year-old man was admitted with increasing palpitations. Radiography of the chest demonstrated a calcified mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed compression of the right ventricle by a tumor. At the time of cardiac catheterization, the coronary arteries were found not to supply blood flow of the mass, and no dip-and-plateau pattern was seen in the right ventricular pressure measurements. At the time of surgery, the mass was found to be a focal calcified thickening of the pericardium containing only pus. The thickening resembled an oval pericardial tumor. Microbiologic examination of the pus revealed Propionibacterium acnes. (+info)
(3/175) Constrictive pericarditis in the modern era: evolving clinical spectrum and impact on outcome after pericardiectomy.
BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of constrictive pericarditis (CP) has been affected by a change in incidence of etiological factors. We sought to determine the impact of these changes on the outcome of pericardiectomy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The contemporary spectrum of CP in 135 patients (76% male) evaluated at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 to 1995 was compared with that of a historic cohort. Notable trends were an increasing frequency of CP due to cardiac surgery and mediastinal radiation and presentation in older patients (median age, 61 versus 45 years). Perioperative mortality decreased (6% versus 14%, P = 0.011), but late survival was inferior to that of an age- and sex-matched US population (57+/-8% at 10 years). The long-term outcome was predicted independently by 3 variables in stepwise logistic regression analyses: (1) age, (2) NYHA class, and most powerfully, (3) a postradiation cause. Of 90 late survivors in whom functional class could be determined, functional status had improved markedly (2.6+/-0.7 at baseline versus 1.5+/-0.8 at latest follow-up [P<0.0001]), with 83% being free of clinical symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The evolving profile of CP, with increasingly older patients and those with radiation-induced disease in the past decade, significantly affects postoperative prognosis. Long-term results of pericardiectomy are disappointing for some patient groups, especially those with radiation-induced CP. By contrast, surgery alleviates or improves symptoms in the majority of late survivors. (+info)
(4/175) Carcinoid constrictive pericarditis.
A 78 year old man presented with diarrhoea, anorexia, and progressive lower limb oedema. He was in atrial fibrillation and had a right pleural effusion and ascites. Ultrasound of the abdomen and 24 hour urinary hydroxyindoleacetic acid output indicated metastatic carcinoid syndrome. Cardiac catheterisation revealed pericardial constriction, and pericardial exploration showed a greatly thickened pericardium with no evidence of tumour invasion. The patient died within 24 hours of surgery. Necropsy findings were consistent with a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis secondary to metastatic carcinoid syndrome. (+info)
(5/175) Cardiac disease late after chest radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease: a case report.
This report presents a case of occult constrictive pericarditis and mitral valve insufficiency following chest radiotherapy. A 44-year-old man had received radiotherapy for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease 8 years ago. At age 40 years, effusive pericarditis occurred and he was treated with intrapericardial drainage. Biopsy revealed a fibrotic and thickened pericardium. He developed congestive heart failure 3 years later. The patient was found to have occult constrictive pericarditis and mitral valve insufficiency. He underwent mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annul plasty, and pericardiectomy. Although there is the benefit of cure for the Hodgkin's disease, the prognosis after treatment is affected by radiotherapy-induced heart disease. After radiotherapy of the chest and mediastinum, long-term cardiological follow-up is recommended in order to detecting patients with radiation-induced heart disease, such as the present case. (+info)
(6/175) Constrictive pericarditis post allogeneic bone marrow transplant for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
We describe two cases of severe constrictive pericarditis arising after allogeneic BMT conditioning involving total body irradiation and melphalan to treat Philadelphia-chromosome positive ALL. Both patients required pericardectomy, resulting in marked improvement in ventricular filling. However, a degree of right-sided cardiac failure persisted in both patients secondary to restrictive cardiomyopathy. Constrictive pericarditis has not been previously described after BMT, but has been observed following thoracic radiotherapy for malignancy, usually involving a substantially higher radiation dose. Pericardial constriction and restrictive cardiomyopathy should be considered as causes of breathlessness and/or oedema occurring late after BMT. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 571-573. (+info)
(7/175) Primary pericardial mesothelioma presenting as constrictive pericarditis: a case report.
Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma is a rare tumor and the case reported here presented as constrictive pericarditis. The patient's symptoms progressed day by day despite treatment with digitalis, diuretics and catecholamines. Although a computed tomographic scan of the chest, echocardiography and pericardiocentesis were performed, a preoperative definitive diagnosis could not be obtained. Emergency pericardiectomy and partial resection of the tumor were carried out with the aid of a percutaneous cardiopulmonary supporting system, but the patient died of cardiac failure on postoperative day 3. The tumor appeared to be the biphasic type of diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The prognosis for pericardial mesothelioma is extremely poor due to its late presentation and difficulty in completely removing it surgically and, unfortunately, there still is not a radical therapy for this tumor. (+info)
(8/175) Subacute tuberculous pericarditis with fibroelastic constriction diagnosed upon pericardiectomy.
A patient with subacute pericarditis showed no evidence suggesting tuberculosis until pericardiectomy was performed because of hemodynamic deterioration. The excised pericardium had a rubbery fibroelastic consistency; histologically, there were granulomatous changes characteristic of tuberculosis. Although tuberculous pericarditis is a difficult diagnosis, this case illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic importance of early pericardiectomy before myocardial inflammatory infiltration occurs together with end-stage pericardial fibrosis and calcification. (+info)