IL-10, but not IL-4, suppresses infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo.
Periapical bone resorption occurs following infection of the dental pulp and is mediated mainly by IL-1alpha in the murine model. The production and activity of IL-1alpha is modulated by a network of regulatory cytokines, including those produced by Th1 (pro-inflammatory) and Th2 (anti-inflammatory) subset T cells. This study was designed to assess the functional role of the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo. The dental pulps of the first molars were exposed and infected with a mixture of four common endodontic pathogens, and bone destruction was determined by micro-computed tomography at sacrifice on day 21. The results demonstrate that IL-10(-/-) mice had significantly greater infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo compared with wild-type mice (p < 0.001), whereas IL-4(-/-) exhibited no increased resorption. IL-10(-/-) had markedly elevated IL-1alpha production within periapical inflammatory tissues (>10-fold) compared with wild type (p < 0.01), whereas IL-4(-/-) exhibited decreased IL-1alpha production (p < 0.05). IL-10 also suppressed IL-1alpha production by macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro, whereas IL-4 had weak and variable effects. We conclude that IL-10, but not IL-4, is an important endogenous suppressor of infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo, likely acting via inhibition of IL-1alpha expression. (+info)
Efficacy of enamel matrix proteins on apical periodontal regeneration after experimental apicoectomy in dogs.
Adult dogs have a complex apical delta structure in all root apexes of teeth. This complex structure may affect the formation of apical lesions in the teeth such as apical abscesses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix protein (EMP) which was used for periodontal regeneration therapy after an experimental apicoectomy for an assumed apical lesions of the teeth in dogs. The maxillar canine roots and maxillar fourth premolar buccal mesial roots in five beagles were experimentally apicoectomized under general inhalation anesthesia. After the root apex was exposed and excised, EMP was applied on the surface of the exposed dentin. After 12 weeks, dogs were euthanized. and the experimental teeth together with the surrounding soft and hard periodontal tissues were collected for histological evaluation under a light microscope. In the EMP group, the size of the defect where the root apex was removed was smaller than that of the control group. New cementum was dominantly achieved in the EMP group compared to the control group. Furthermore, new collagen fibers that bridged area between the new cementum and new alveolar bone were detected only in the EMP group. The present results demonstrated marked apical periodontal regeneration after apicoectomy in the EMP group. These results, therefore, suggest that the application of EMP can effectively induce the regeneration of periodontal strUctures in apicoectomized dogs. (+info)
Differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach to periapical cysts in daily dental practice.
The diagnosis and therapeutic approach to periapical cysts is an extremely controversial concern for dentists. Furthermore, as this complaint represents the most frequent cystic lesion of the maxilla, together with the fact that its differential diagnosis with chronic apical periodontitis presents special difficulty, the question takes on even greater importance. The purpose of this article is to assess the validity of the various diagnostic techniques used to differentiate between both pathologies and make a critical analysis of the controversy surrounding the therapeutic approach to suspected periapical cysts through non-surgical and follow-up treatment, or surgical enucleation and histopathological analysis. (+info)
PCR-based identification of bacteria associated with endodontic infections.
PCR primers that target the bacterial 16S rRNA genes (or the tuf gene for the genus Enterococcus) were used to identify 10 putative bacterial pathogens in root canals with necrotic pulp. In addition, the associations of these microorganisms with symptoms and a history of diabetes mellitus were investigated. Microbial samples from the root canals of 24 teeth with necrotic pulp were included in the study. PCR with universal bacterial primers identified bacterial DNA in 22 specimens; the remaining 2 specimens were from intact teeth that had been traumatized 6 months prior to treatment. PCR with specific primers showed that preoperative symptoms were significantly associated with the presence of Streptococcus spp. (P < 0.001 by chi-square analysis). There was also a nonsignificant trend for symptoms to be associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis (odds ratio, >2) and for diabetes mellitus to be associated with P. gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis (odds ratio, >2). Cloning and sequencing of the universal PCR product in one specimen revealed the presence of an organism related to the genus Olsenella, which has not previously been described in endodontic infections. (+info)
Emergency management of acute apical periodontitis in the permanent dentition: a systematic review of the literature.
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of interventions used in the emergency management of acute apical periodontitis in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from their inception to 2001. These searches, combined with manual searching, yielded 1,097 citations, of which 92 were relevant. Independent application of inclusion criteria by 2 teams of reviewers yielded 15 eligible randomized controlled trials. Data on population, interventions, outcomes (pain relief or change in intensity of pain as reported by patients or clinicians) and methodological quality were determined by independent duplicate review. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that pre-emptive analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) in conjunction with pulpectomy provided a significant benefit (weighted mean difference -11.70, 95% confidence interval -22.84 to -0.56). Three interventions did not show significant benefit: systemic antibiotics, intracanal treatment with a steroid-antibiotic combination, and trephination through attached gingiva. CONCLUSIONS: In the management of pain associated with acute apical periodontitis, there is strong evidence to support the use of systemic NSAIDs in conjunction with nonsurgical endodontics. The use of antibiotics is not recommended. (+info)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for direct visualization of bacteria in periapical lesions of asymptomatic root-filled teeth.
Whether micro-organisms can live in periapical endodontic lesions of asymptomatic teeth is under debate. The aim of the present study was to visualize and identify micro-organisms within periapical lesions directly, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in combination with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thirty-nine periapical lesions were surgically removed, fixed, embedded in cold polymerizing resin and sectioned. The probe EUB 338, specific for the domain Bacteria, was used together with a number of species-specific 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes to identify bacteria. To control non-specific binding of EUB 338, probe NON 338 was used. Alternatively, DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining was applied to record prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA in the specimens. Hybridization with NON 338 gave no signals despite background fluorescence of the tissue. The eubacterial probe showed bacteria of different morphotypes in 50 % of the lesions. Rods, spirochaetes and cocci were spread out in areas of the tissue while other parts seemed bacteria-free. Bacteria were also seen to co-aggregate inside the tissue, forming microcolonies. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis and treponemes of phylogenetic Group I were detected with specific probes. In addition, colonies with Streptococcus spp. were seen in some lesions. A number of morphotypes occurred that could not be identified with the specific probes used, indicating the presence of additional bacterial species. CLSM confirmed that bacteria were located in different layers of the tissue. Accordingly, the FISH technique demonstrated mixed consortia of bacteria consisting of rods, spirochaetes and cocci in asymptomatic periapical lesions of root-filled teeth. (+info)
Yeasts in apical periodontitis.
Microbiological reports of apical periodontitis have revealed that yeasts can be isolated from approximately 5-20% of infected root canals. They occur either in pure cultures or together with bacteria. Almost all isolated yeasts belong to the genus Candida, and the predominant species is C. albicans. Pheno- and genotypic profiles of C. albicans isolates show heterogeneity comparable with those of isolates from other oral sites. C. albicans expresses several virulence factors that are capable of infecting the dentin-pulp complex, including dentinal tubules. This causes, consequentially, an inflammatory response around the root apex, which suggests a pathogenic role for this organism in apical periodontitis. Yeasts are particularly associated with persistent root canal infections that do not respond favorably to conservative root canal therapy. This may be due to the resistance of all oral Candida species against a commonly used topical medicament, calcium hydroxide. However, other antimicrobial agents may offer alternative therapeutic approaches and improve the treatment of these persistent cases of apical periodontitis. (+info)
Mast cells and oral inflammation.
Mast cells are mobile granule-containing secretory cells that are distributed preferentially about the microvascular endothelium in oral mucosa and dental pulp. The enzyme profile of mast cells in oral tissues resembles that of skin, with most mast cells expressing the serine proteases tryptase and chymase. Mast cells in oral tissues contain the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha in their granules, and release of this promotes leukocyte infiltration during evolving inflammation in several conditions, including lichen planus, gingivitis, pulpitis, and periapical inflammation, through induction of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules. Mast cell synthesis and release of other mediators exerts potent immunoregulatory effects on other cell types, while several T-lymphocyte-derived cytokines influence mast cell migration and mediator release. Mast cell proteases may contribute to alterations in basement membranes in inflammation in the oral cavity, such as the disruptions that allow cytotoxic lymphocytes to enter the epithelium in oral lichen planus. A close relationship exists among mast cells, neural elements, and laminin, and this explains the preferential distribution of mast cells in tissues. Mast cells are responsive to neuropeptides and, through their interaction with neural elements, form a neural immune network with Langerhans cells in mucosal tissues. This facilitates mast cell degranulation in response to a range of immunological and non-immunological stimuli. Because mast cells play a pivotal role in inflammation, therapies that target mast cell functions could have value in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders in the oral cavity. (+info)