Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid. (1/56)

To study the effects of perfume and phytoncid on GABAA receptors, ionotropic GABAA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs that had been prepared from rat whole brain. Essential oil, perfume and such phytoncid as leaf alcohol, hinokitiol, pinene, eugenol, citronellol and citronellal potentiated the response in the presence of GABA at low concentrations (10 and 30 microM), possibly because they bound to the potentiation-site in GABAA receptors and increased the affinity of GABA to the receptors. Since it is known that the potentiation of GABAA receptors by benzodiazepine, barbiturate, steroids and anesthetics induces the anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative activity or anesthetic effect, these results suggest the possibility that the intake of perfume or phytoncid through the lungs, the skin or the intestines modulates the neural transmission in the brain through ionotropic GABAA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.  (+info)

Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation. (2/56)

Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.  (+info)

Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation. (3/56)

The effects of chiral fragrances (enantiomers of limonene and carvone) on the human autonomic nervous system (ANS) and on self-evaluation were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Each fragrance was administered to each subject by inhalation using an A-A-B design. Individuals were tested in four separate sessions; in one session one fragrance was administered. ANS parameters recorded were skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Subjective experience was assessed in terms of mood, calmness and alertness on visual analog scales. In addition, fragrances were rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity and stimulating property. Inhalation of (+)-limonene led to increased systolic blood pressure, subjective alertness and restlessness. Inhalation of (-)-limonene caused an increase in systolic blood pressure but had no effects on psychological parameters. Inhalation of (-)-carvone caused increases in pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure and subjective restlessness. After inhalation of (+)-carvone increased levels of systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure were observed. Correlational analyses revealed that changes in both ANS parameters and self-evaluation were in part related to subjective evaluation of the odor and suggest that both pharmacological and psychological mechanisms are involved in the observed effects. In conclusion, the present study indicates that: (i) prolonged inhalation of fragrances influences ANS parameters as well as mental and emotional conditions; (ii) effects of fragrances are in part based on subjective evaluation of odor; (iii) chirality of odor molecules seems to be a central factor with respect to the biological activity of fragrances.  (+info)

Occupational acute anaphylactic reaction to assault by perfume spray in the face. (4/56)

BACKGROUND: Perfumes have been associated with rashes in employees exposed to scented soaps or with allergic conditions, such as rhinitis or asthma, in employees exposed to perfumes or fragrances in the air. METHODS: Reported here is a case of an anaphylactic reaction and respiratory distress as a result of a deliberate assault with a perfume spray. The medical literature was searched using the key words "fragrances," "respiratory distress," "assault," and "health care workers." RESULTS: A female medical assistant with no history of asthma or reactions to fragrances was assaulted by a patient, who pumped three sprays of a perfume into her face. The employee experienced an acute anaphylactic reaction with shortness of breath, a suffocating sensation, wheezes, and generalized urticaria, and required aggressive medical treatment, a long period of oral bronchodilator therapy, and, finally, weaning from the medications. CONCLUSIONS: Perfumes are complex mixtures of more than 4,000 vegetable and animal extracts and organic and nonorganic compounds. Fragrances have been found to cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients, including chest tightening and wheezing, and are a common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. In many work settings the use of fragrances is limited. Assault is becoming more common among workers in the health care setting. Workers should be prepared to take immediate steps should an employee go into anaphylactic shock.  (+info)

Association between occupation and contact allergy to the fragrance mix: a multifactorial analysis of national surveillance data. (5/56)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of potential (occupational) risk factors for fragrance contact allergy (FCA). Most studies assessing the range of contact sensitisation in various clinical populations found the fragrance mix, a good screening tool for the detection of FCA in general, to be one of the leading allergens. The role of occupational exposure to fragrances is, however, yet unclear. METHODS: Firstly, crude analyses of the prevalence of FCA in various occupational fields including all 57,779 patients patch tested in the participating centres of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between January 1992 and December 1998. Secondly, a multifactorial Poisson regression analysis of these patients, including several potential risk factors. RESULTS: (a) The proportion of patients with FCA varied greatly between different occupational groups from 2.5% to 17.4%, (b) the highest occupational risk of FCA was associated with work as a masseur or physiotherapist, metal furnace operator, potter or glass maker etc, or geriatric nurse, (c) non-occupational factors that influenced risk of FCA included atopy, female sex, several sites, in particular the axillae, and increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Occupations with a high risk of FCA were identified as targets of preventive action--that is, the substitution of scented products with fragrance free materials with which to work (skin disinfectants, cleaning solutions, personal care products) wherever possible.  (+info)

Fragrance as an occupational allergen. (6/56)

Sensitization to fragrance is believed to occur mainly outside the workplace. This study addresses the frequency of fragrance allergy in patch test patients of differing occupations during a 15 year period. The occupation most strongly associated with fragrance allergy in both sexes was health care work (positive tests in 11.7% of males and 10.4% of females). Retired individuals also had high rates of fragrance allergy (11.6% of males and 14.5% of females), and the prevalence of sensitization increased with advancing age. Health care workers and metal workers had statistically significantly higher rates of allergy to eugenol than did workers in other occupations. Food handlers had significantly higher rates of allergy to cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. These findings suggest that sensitization to fragrance occurs more frequently in an occupational setting than is generally understood and could have implications for preventive measures.  (+info)

Synthesis of (R)- and (S)- muscone. (7/56)

(R)-(-)-Muscone (3-methylcyclopentadecanone, 1) the key perfumery component isolated from the male musk deer, Moschus moschiferus,* was synthesized from the easily available chiral building block, (R)-3-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-methylpropanoic acid (2), by employing ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM). Antipode (+)-1 was also synthesized in a similar manner from tert-butyl (S)-3-methoxycarbonylbutanoate (10). *(a) Walbaum, H. J. J. Prakt. Chem., 73, 488 (1906); (b) Ruzicka, L., Further considerations on the constitution of muscone. Helv. Chim. Acta, 9, 715, 1008-1017 (1926).  (+info)

Rose scent: genomics approach to discovering novel floral fragrance-related genes. (8/56)

For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of approximately 2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism-related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent-related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants. EST sequences were submitted to the GenBank database (accession numbers BQ 103855 to BQ 106728).  (+info)