Long-chain fatty acids of peptococci and peptostreptococci.
The long-chain fatty acids extracted from the whole cells of 12 clinically significant species of peptococci and peptostreptococci were characterized by gas-liquid chromatography. The resulting methylated fatty acid profiles (and some unidentified compounds) of 82 strains allowed the 12 species to be separated into four groups. Fifteen strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius were placed in group I because they had a unique, prominent compound that occurred in the area where a C8 to C10 fatty acid would be expected. Group II, consisting of Peptostreptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus micros, Peptostreptococcus parvulus, Peptococcus morbillorum, and Peptococcus constellatus, produced C14, C16:1, C18:1, and C18 fatty acids. Peptococcus prevotii, Peptococcus variabilus, Peptococcus magnus, Peptococcus asaccharolyticus, and Peptostreptococcus productus were placed in group III because they contained three to six additional, unidentified compounds that strikingly differentiated them from group II. Peptococcus saccharolyticus was the single species assigned to group IV because it yielded C14, C16, C18:1, C18, and C20 fatty acids and a prominent unidentified peak that occurred between C14 and C16 fatty acids. This study indicated that cellular long-chain fatty acids may be an important tool in clarifying the taxonomy of the peptococci and peptostreptococci. (+info)
The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.
The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel. (+info)
NH---S hydrogen bonds in Peptococcus aerogenes ferredoxin, Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin, and Chromatium high potential iron protein.
Results from refinement of the crystal structures of P. aerogenes ferredoxin and C. pasteurianum rubredoxin determined by x-ray diffraction show that there are 15-18 NH---S bonds in the former and six in the latter with lengths in the range 3.1-3.9 A. Earlier tritium exchange experiments are consistent with the presence of these hydrogen bonds in the ferredoxin structure and show that more peptide hydrogen atoms are available for exchange in apoferredoxin than in intact ferredoxin. Four types of NH---S bonds are observed and two of these are geometrically similar to the two types of 3(10) NH---O bonds. The existence of more NH---S bonds in ferredoxin than in high potential iron protein suggests why the -2 form of the Fe4S4 cluster is preferred in ferredoxin over the -1 form found in high potential iron protein. From comparison of Cys-X-Y-Cys sequences in rubredoxin, ferredoxin, and high potential iron protein we suggest that two Cys-X-Y-Cys-Z sequences, where Z may have conformation angles similar to glycine, are required to make a one-iron cluster, no more than one Cys-X-Y-Cys-Z-Gly sequence is required to form a Fe2S2 ferredoxin, and a Cys-X-Y-Cys-Gly sequence where Y has a conformation such that the cysteines bond to different iron atoms is necessary to form the tetrameric cluster. (+info)
Anaerobic specimen transport device.
A device is described and evaluated for the anaerobic transport of clinical specimens. The device limits the amount of oxygen entering with the sample to a maximum of 2%, which is rapidly removed by reacting with hydrogen in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The viability on swabs of 12 species of anaerobes, four strains of facultative anaerobes and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was maintained during the length of the tests (24 or 48 h). The results demonstrated that this device protected even the more oxygen-sensitive clinical anaerobes from death due to oxygen exposure. This device can be used for swabs as well as for anaerobic collection and liquid and solid specimens. (+info)
Effects of high risk and low risk diets for colon carcinogenesis on fecal microflora and steroids in man.
We investigated the effects of a high meat mixed Western diet and a nonmeat diet, representing the dietary pattern of high and low risk areas for colon cancer, respectively, on fecal microflora dn on bile acid and neutral sterol patterns in man. The total anaerobic microflora as well as the count of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Peptococcus, and anaerobic Lactobacillus were significantly higher during the period of consumption of a high meat mixed Western diet comparted with the nonmeat-diet consumption period. The difference in total fecal bile acid excretion was not significant between the two dietary periods. Fecal excretion of microbially modified bile acids and neutral sterols was decreased when subjects eating a high meat diet transferred to a nonmeat diet. These results support the fact that diet plays a modifying role on the composition of intestinal microflora, bile acids, and neutral sterols. (+info)
Oxygen tolerance of fresh clinical anaerobic bacteria.
The oxygen tolerance and sensitivity of 57 freshly isolated anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens was studied. All the organisms tolerated 8 h or more of exposure to oxygen in room air. Growth of the isolates in increasing oxygen concentrations demonstrated that the 57 isolates varied in oxygen sensitivity from strict to aerotolerant anaerobes. Comparison of the oxygen tolerance and sensitivity showed that the most tolerant organisms (best survival after prolonged exposure) included anaerobes capable of growth at only 0.4% or less O2 (strict) as well as those able to grow in as much as 10% O2. The least tolerant were predominately strict anaerobes. Decrease in the inoculum size from a concentration of 10(8) to 10(6) colony-forming units per ml had only a minor effect. The data indicate that the brief oxygen exposure with bench techniques in clinical laboratories would not be deleterious to the anaerobic bacteria present in clinical specimens. (+info)
Protein control of iron-sulfur cluster redox potentials.
The relationship between the three-dimensional structures of iron-sulfur proteins and the redox potentials of their iron-sulfur clusters is of fundamental importance. We report calculations of the redox potentials of the [Fe4S4(S-cys)4]-2/-3 couple in four crystallographically characterized proteins: Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I, Peptococcus aerogenes ferredoxin, Bacillus thermoproteolyticus ferredoxin, and Chromatium vinosum high potential iron protein (HiPIP). Our calculations use the "protein dipoles Langevin dipoles" microscopic electrostatic model, which includes both protein and solvent water. The variations in calculated redox potentials are in excellent agreement with experimental data. In particular, our results confirm the important role of amide groups close to the cluster in separating the potential of C. vinosum HiPIP from those of the other three proteins. However, the potentials of these latter exhibit a substantial range despite extremely similar amide group environments of their clusters. Our results show that the potentials in these proteins are tuned in part by varying the access of solvent water to the neighborhood of the cluster. Our calculations provide the first successful quantitative modeling of the protein control of iron-sulfur cluster redox potentials. (+info)
Growth curves of anaerobic bacteria in solid media.
Simple pour plate and spectrophotometric techniques for the evaluation of growth curves of several anaerobic bacteria on solid media are described. Three basic patterns of anaerobic growth were observed. The curves obtained were very reproducible when studied on separate occasions. The curves obtained by spectrophotometric measurement were comparable to those obtained by the pour plate method, especially when a large bacterial inoculum was used. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are discussed. The methods and principles reported could provide the basis for the determination of bacterial growth on solid media using other organisms and different experimental conditions. (+info)