Enzymatic repair of 5-formyluracil. I. Excision of 5-formyluracil site-specifically incorporated into oligonucleotide substrates by alka protein (Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II).
5-Formyluracil (fU) is a major thymine lesion produced by reactive oxygen radicals and photosensitized oxidation. We have previously shown that fU is a potentially mutagenic lesion due to its elevated frequency to mispair with guanine. Therefore, fU can exist in DNA as a correctly paired fU:A form or an incorrectly paired fU:G form. In this work, fU was site-specifically incorporated opposite A in oligonucleotide substrates to delineate the cellular repair mechanism of fU paired with A. The repair activity for fU was induced in Escherichia coli upon exposure to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the induction was dependent on the alkA gene, suggesting that AlkA (3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) was responsible for the observed activity. Activity assay and determination of kinetic parameters using purified AlkA and defined oligonucleotide substrates containing fU, 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hU), or 7-methylguanine (7mG) revealed that fU was recognized by AlkA with an efficiency comparable to that of 7mG, a good substrate for AlkA, whereas hU, another major thymine methyl oxidation products, was not a substrate. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine indicated that the 5-formyl group caused base C-6 and sugar C-1' to be electron deficient, which was shown to result in destabilization of the N-glycosidic bond. These features are common in other good substrates for AlkA and are suggested to play key roles in the differential recognition of fU, hU, and intact thymine. Three mammalian repair enzymes for alkylated and oxidized bases cloned so far (MPG, Nth1, and OGG1) did not recognize fU, implying that the mammalian repair activity for fU resided on a yet unidentified protein. In the accompanying paper (Terato, H., Masaoka, A., Kobayashi, M., Fukushima, S., Ohyama, Y., Yoshida, M., and Ide, H., J. Biol. Chem. 274, 25144-25150), possible repair mechanisms for fU mispaired with G are reported. (+info)
NMR-derived solution structure of a 17mer hydroxymethyluracil-containing DNA.
Incorporation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA in place of thymine by SPO1, a Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage, allows the viral DNA to bind selectively to transcription factor 1. We have synthesized a TF1-binding site: d(5'-ACCHACHCHHHGHAGGT-3')-d(5'-ACCHACAAAGAGHAGGT-3') and studied this molecule using NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shifts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable protons were sequentially assigned. Absence of corresponding NOEs in the imino-imino region suggested that the end base pairs did not form Watson-Crick hydrogen bond. Restrained molecular dynamics calculation yielded a family of B-DNA structures whose r.m.s.d. was 0.66 A (all atoms) for the internal 15 bp. The helical twist was 38.5 degrees per step. The base pairs were situated directly on the helix axis (X-displacement = -0.2 A). All sugars exhibited C2'-endo puckering with P = 167.3 degrees and upsilon(max)= 38.2 degrees. The OH groups of all hmU bases resided on the 3' side of the base plane and may affect the base orientation relative to the sugar plane as the average chi value for all hmU was 4 degrees more positive than that of other nucleosides (258 degrees versus 254 degrees ). Positive roll angles (rho) and small flanking twists (omega) at hmU suggested that the two hmU-A base pair steps open toward the minor grooves. (+info)
An unexpectedly high excision capacity for mispaired 5-hydroxymethyluracil in human cell extracts.
The oxidation of thymine in DNA can generate a base pair between 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HmU) and adenine, whereas the oxidation and deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA can generate a base pair between HmU and guanine. Using synthetic oligonucleotides containing HmU at a defined site, HmU-DNA glycosylase activities in HeLa cell and human fibroblast cell extracts have been observed. An HmU-DNA glycosylase activity that removes HmU mispaired with guanine has been measured. Surprisingly, the HmU:G excision activity is 60 times greater than the corresponding HmU:A activity, even though the expected rate of formation of the HmU:A base pair exceeds that of the HmU:G base pair by a factor of 10(7). The HmU:G mispair would arise from the 5mC:G base pair, and, if unrepaired, would give rise to a transition mutation. The observation of an unexpectedly high HmU:G glycosylase activity suggests that human cells may encounter the HmU:G mispair much more frequently than expected. The conversion of 5mC to HmU must be considered as a potential pathway for the generation of 5mC to T transition mutations, which are often found in human tumors. (+info)
Excessive base excision repair of 5-hydroxymethyluracil from DNA induces apoptosis in Chinese hamster V79 cells containing mutant p53.
We have demonstrated previously that the toxicity of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (hmdUrd) to Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79 cells) results from enzymatic removal of large numbers of hydroxymethyluracil residues from the DNA backbone [Boorstein,R. et al. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol., 12, 5536-5540]. Here we report that a significant portion of the hmdUrd-induced cell death that is dependent on DNA base excision repair in V79 cells is apoptosis. Incubation of V79 cells with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of hmdUrd resulted in the characteristic changes of apoptosis as measured by gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. However, hmdUrd did not induce apoptosis in V79mut1 cells, which are deficient in DNA base excision repair of 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmUra). Apoptosis was not prevented by addition of 3-aminobenzamide, which inhibits synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) from NAD, indicating that apoptosis was not the direct consequence of NAD depletion. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis indicated that hmdUrd treatment resulted in high molecular weight (2.2-4.5 Mb) DNA double-strand breaks prior to formation of internucleosomal ladders in V79 cells. Simultaneous measurement of DNA strand breaks with bromodeoxyuridine/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and of cell cycle distribution indicated that cells with DNA strand breaks accumulated in late S/G(2) and that hmdUrd-treated cells underwent apoptosis after arrest in late S/G(2) phase. Our results indicate that excessive DNA base excision repair results in the generation of high molecular weight DNA double-strand breaks and eventually leads to apoptosis in V79 cells. Thus, delayed apoptosis following DNA damage can be a consequence of excessive DNA repair activity. Immunochemical analysis showed that both V79 and V79mut1 cells contained mutant p53, indicating that apoptosis induced by DNA base excision repair can be independent of p53. (+info)
Definitive identification of mammalian 5-hydroxymethyluracil DNA N-glycosylase activity as SMUG1.
Purification from calf thymus of a DNA N-glycosylase activity (HMUDG) that released 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmUra) from the DNA of Bacillus subtilis phage SPO1 was undertaken. Analysis of the most purified fraction by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a multiplicity of protein species making it impossible to identify HMUDG by inspection. Therefore, we renatured the enzyme after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and assayed slices of the gel for DNA N-glycosylase activity directed against 5hmUra. Maximum enzymatic activity was identified between molecular mass markers 30 and 34 kDa. Protein was extracted from gel slices and subjected to tryptic digestion and analysis by mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed the presence of 11 peptides that were homologous or identical to the sequence of the recently characterized human single-stranded monofunctional uracil DNA N-glycosylase (hSMUG1). The cDNA of hSMUG1 was isolated and expressed as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein that was shown to release 5hmUra with 20x the specific activity of the most purified bovine fraction. We conclude that hSMUG1 and HMUDG are the same protein. (+info)
Identification of high excision capacity for 5-hydroxymethyluracil mispaired with guanine in DNA of Escherichia coli MutM, Nei and Nth DNA glycosylases.
The oxidation and deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA generates a base-pair between 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU) and guanine. 5hmU normally forms a base-pair with adenine. Therefore, the conversion of 5mC to 5hmU is a potential pathway for the generation of 5mC to T transitions. Mammalian cells have high levels of activity of 5hmU-DNA glycosylase, which excises 5hmU from DNA. However, glycosylases that similarly excise 5hmU have not been observed in yeast or Escherichia coli. Recently, we found that E.coli MutM, Nei and Nth have DNA glycosylase activity for 5-formyluracil, which is another type of oxidation product of the thymine methyl group. In this study, we examined whether or not E.coli MutM, Nei and Nth have also DNA glycosylase activity that acts on 5hmU in vitro. When incubated with synthetic duplex oligonucleotides containing 5hmU:G or 5hmU:A, purified MutM, Nei and Nth cleaved the 5hmU:G oligonucleotide 58, 5 and 37 times, respectively, more efficiently than the 5hmU:A oligonucleotide. In E.coli, the 5hmU-DNA glycosylase activities of MutM, Nei and Nth may play critical roles in the repair of 5hmU:G mispairs to avoid 5mC to T transitions. (+info)
Structure and specificity of the vertebrate anti-mutator uracil-DNA glycosylase SMUG1.
Cytosine deamination is a major promutagenic process, generating G:U mismatches that can cause transition mutations if not repaired. Uracil is also introduced into DNA via nonmutagenic incorporation of dUTP during replication. In bacteria, uracil is excised by uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDG) related to E. coli UNG, and UNG homologs are found in mammals and viruses. Ung knockout mice display no increase in mutation frequency due to a second UDG activity, SMUG1, which is specialized for antimutational uracil excision in mammalian cells. Remarkably, SMUG1 also excises the oxidation-damage product 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HmU), but like UNG is inactive against thymine (5-methyluracil), a chemical substructure of HmU. We have solved the crystal structure of SMUG1 complexed with DNA and base-excision products. This structure indicates a more invasive interaction with dsDNA than observed with other UDGs and reveals an elegant water displacement/replacement mechanism that allows SMUG1 to exclude thymine from its active site while accepting HmU. (+info)
Binding activity of replication protein A to single-stranded DNA containing oxidized pyrimidine base.
To obtain the information for the role of replication protein A (RPA) on the detection of oxidized lesion in the single-stranded DNA, the binding preference of RPA purified from Xenopus egg lysate against the oligonucleotide containing one of three kinds of oxidized thymine residues, 5-formyluracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)uracil, was studied by the gel shift assay. Results of competition assay indicate that RPA preferentially binds to the oligonucleotide containing these oxidized thymine residues than the undamaged DNA. (+info)