Purification of a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione conjugate-specific dehydrogenase involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45.
A glutathione S-transferase (GST) with activity toward 1, 2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoprene monoxide) and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane was purified from the isoprene-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 27 kDa each) catalyzed the glutathione (GSH)-dependent ring opening of various epoxides. At 5 mM GSH, the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for isoprene monoxide and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane, with Vmax values of 66 and 2.4 micromol min-1 mg of protein-1 and Km values of 0.3 and 0.1 mM for isoprene monoxide and cis-1,2-dichloroepoxyethane, respectively. Activities increased linearly with the GSH concentration up to 25 mM. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the product of GSH conjugation to isoprene monoxide was 1-hydroxy-2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butene (HGMB). Thus, nucleophilic attack of GSH occurred on the tertiary carbon atom of the epoxide ring. HGMB was further converted by an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, and this enzyme was also purified from isoprene-grown cells. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 25 kDa each) showed a high activity for HGMB, whereas simple primary and secondary alcohols were not oxidized. The enzyme catalyzed the sequential oxidation of the alcohol function to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid and followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to NAD+ and HGMB. The results suggest that the initial steps in isoprene metabolism are a monooxygenase-catalyzed conversion to isoprene monoxide, a GST-catalyzed conjugation to HGMB, and a dehydrogenase-catalyzed two-step oxidation to 2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid. (+info)
High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene.
Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens. (+info)
Identification of urinary metabolites of isoprene in rats and comparison with mouse urinary metabolites.
Isoprene, a major commodity chemical used in production of polyisoprene elastomers, has been shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. Similar to findings for the structurally related compound butadiene, mice are more susceptible than rats to isoprene-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. Although differences in uptake, and disposition of isoprene in rats and mice have been described, its in vivo biotransformation products have not been characterized in either species. The purpose of these studies was to identify the urinary metabolites of isoprene in Fischer 344 rats and compare these metabolites with those formed in male B6C3F1 mice. After i.p. administration of 64 mg [14C]isoprene/kg to rats and mice, isoprene was excreted unchanged in breath ( approximately 50%) or as urinary metabolites ( approximately 32%). In rats isoprene was primarily excreted in urine as 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (53%), 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (23%), and the C-1 glucuronide conjugate of 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (13%). These metabolites are consistent with preferential oxidation of isoprene's methyl-substituted vinyl group. No oxidation of the unsubstituted vinyl group was observed. In addition to the isoprene metabolites found in rat urine, mouse urine contained numerous other isoprene metabolites with a larger percentage (25%) of total urinary radioactivity associated with an unidentified, polar fraction than in the rat (7%). Unlike butadiene, there was no evidence that glutathione conjugation played a significant role in the metabolism of isoprene in rats. Because of the unidentified metabolites in mouse urine, involvement of glutathione in the metabolism of isoprene in mice cannot be delineated. (+info)
Identification and characterization of three novel missense mutations in mevalonate kinase cDNA causing mevalonic aciduria, a disorder of isoprene biosynthesis.
Mevalonic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, characterized by psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and recurrent febrile crises. The disorder is caused by a deficient activity of mevalonate kinase due to mutations in the encoding gene. Thus far, only two disease-causing mutations have been identified. We now report four different missense mutations including three novel ones, which were identified by sequence analysis of mevalonate kinase cDNA from three mevalonic aciduria patients. All mutations affect conserved amino acids. Heterologous expression of the corresponding mutant mevalonate kinases as fusion proteins with glutathione S -transferase in Escherichia coli showed a profound effect of each of the mutations on enzyme activity. In addition, immunoblot analysis of fibroblast lysates from patients using specific antibodies against mevalonate kinase identified virtually no protein. These results demonstrate that the mutations affect not only the activity but also the stability of the mutant proteins. (+info)
Phosphoinositide-dependent activation of Rho A involves partial opening of the RhoA/Rho-GDI complex.
Rho GTPases have two interconvertible forms and two cellular localizations. In their GTP-bound conformation, they bind to the cell membrane and are activated. In the inactive GDP-bound conformation, they associate with a cytosolic protein called GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI). We previously reported that the RhoA component of the RhoA/Rho-GDI complex was not accessible to the Clostridium botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyl transferase, unless the complex had been incubated with phosphoinositides. We show here that PtdIns, PtdIns4P, PtdIns3,4P2, PtdIns4,5P2 and PtdInsP3 enhance not only the C3-dependent ADP-ribosylation, but also the GDP/GTP exchange in the RhoA component of the prenylated RhoA/Rho-GDI complex. In contrast, in the nonprenylated RhoA/Rho-GDI complex, the levels of ADP-ribosylation and GDP/GTP exchange are of the same order as those measured on free RhoA and are not modified by phosphoinositides. In both cases, phosphoinositides partially opened, but did not fully dissociate the complex. Upon treatment of the prenylated RhoA/Rho-GDI complex with phosphoinositides, a GTP-dependent transfer to neutrophil membranes was evidenced. Using an overlay assay with the prenylated RhoA/Rho-GDI complex pretreated with PtdIns4P and labeled with [alpha32P]GTP, three membrane proteins with molecular masses between 26 and 32 kDa were radiolabeled. We conclude that in the presence of phosphoinositides, the prenylated RhoA/Rho-GDI complex partially opens, which allows RhoA to exchange GDP for GTP. The opened GTP-RhoA/Rho-GDI complex acquires the capacity to target specific membrane proteins. (+info)
Three distinct phases of isoprene formation during growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.
During growth on a glucose-tryptone medium, Bacillus subtilis 6051 (Marburg strain) exhibited three phases of isoprene (2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene) formation, corresponding to (i) glucose catabolism and secretion of acetoin, (ii) catabolism of acetoin, and (iii) the early stages of sporulation. These results establish an experimental system for studying the biological role of isoprene formation. (+info)
Examination of low-incidence brain tumor responses in F344 rats following chemical exposures in National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies.
Neoplasms in the brain are uncommon in control Fischer 344 (F344) rats; they occur at a rate of less than 1% in 2-yr toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Furthermore, only 10 of nearly 500 studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed any evidence of chemically related neoplastic effects in the brain. Generally, the brain tumor responses were considered equivocal, because the characteristics of potential neurocarcinogenic agents (such as statistically significant increased incidences, decreased latency and/or survival, and demonstration of dose-response relationships) were not observed. A thorough examination, including comparisons with a well-established historical database, is often critical in evaluating rare brain tumors. Chemicals that gave equivocal evidence of brain tumor responses were generally associated with carcinogenicity at other sites, and many chemicals were mutagenic when incubated with metabolic activating enzymes. Other factors that were supportive of the theory that marginal increases in brain tumor incidence were related to chemical exposure were that (a) some of the tumors were malignant, (b) no brain neoplasms were observed in concurrent controls from some studies, and/or (c) brain tumors were also seen following exposure to structurally related chemicals. In 2-yr studies in F344 rats (studies conducted by the NTP), equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity was observed for the following 9 chemicals: isoprene, bromoethane, chloroethane, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, furosemide, C.I. direct blue 15, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and 1-H-benzotriazole. Glycidol was the only chemical evaluated by the NTP with which there was clear evidence of brain tumor induction in F344 rats. Clarification of the potential neurocarcinogenic risks of chemicals that produce equivocal evidence of a brain tumor response in conventional 2-yr rodent studies may be aided by the use of transgenic mouse models that exhibit genetic alterations that reflect those present in human brain tumors as well as by the use of in utero exposures. (+info)
Oxidative stress in humans during work at moderate altitude.
Increased oxidative stress has been associated with work at high altitude; however, it is not known whether oxidative stress is a significant problem at moderate altitudes. The oxidative stress indicators, breath pentane (BP), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid peroxides (LPO) were measured in breath, blood and urine samples of U.S. Marines engaged in moderate altitude ( approximately 3000 m) cold weather field training. The test subjects were divided into a placebo and four antioxidant supplement groups (n = 15/group) and received the following supplements for 28 d: 1) vitamin E, 440 alpha-tocopherol equivalents (alpha-TE); 2) vitamin A, 2000 retinol equivalents (RE) of beta-carotene; 3) vitamin C, 500 mg ascorbic acid; 4) a mixture of 440 alpha-TE, 2000 RE of beta-carotene, 500 mg ascorbic acid, 100 microg selenium and 30 mg zinc daily. Strenuous work ( approximately 23 MJ/d) in cold weather at moderate altitude was accompanied by increases in several indicators of oxidative stress that were not effectively controlled by conventional antioxidant supplements. The group receiving the antioxidant mixture exhibited lower BP (P < 0. 05) compared with those receiving single antioxidant supplements; however, not all markers of oxidative stress responded like BP. Because these markers did not respond in the same manner, it is important to include markers from more than one source to assess the effect of supplemental dietary antioxidants. (+info)