Nitric oxide release in penile corpora cavernosa in a rat model of erection.
1. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the corpus cavernosum of urethane-anaesthetized rats by using differential normal pulse voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes coated with a polymeric porphyrin and a cation exchanger (Nafion). A NO oxidation peak could be recorded at 650 mV vs. a Ag-AgCl reference electrode every 100 s. 2. This NO signal was greatly decreased by the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), given by local and systemic routes, and enhanced by the NO precursor L-arginine. Treatment with L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME on the NO peak. 3. Both the NO signal and the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) were increased by electrical stimulation of cavernosal nerves (ESCN). However, the rise in the NO levels long outlived the rapid return to baseline of the ICP values at the end of nerve stimulation. 4. The ICP and the NO responses to ESCN were suppressed by local and systemic injections of L-NAME. Subsequent treatment with L-arginine of L-NAME-treated animals restored the NO signal to basal levels and the NO response to ESCN. The ICP response to ESCN was restored only in part by L-arginine. 5. The observed temporal dissociation between the NO and ICP responses could be accounted for by several factors, including the buffering of NO by the blood filling the cavernosal spaces during erection. 6. These findings indicate that an increased production of NO in the corpora cavernosa is necessary but not sufficient for maintaining penile erection and suggest a complex modulation of the NO-cGMP-cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation cascade. (+info)
Concordant induction of cyclin E and p21cip1 in differentiated keratinocytes by the human papillomavirus E7 protein inhibits cellular and viral DNA synthesis.
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21Cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21Cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We propose that an appropriately timed induction of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by HPV E7 in postmitotic cells enables S-phase reentry and HPV DNA amplification, whereas prematurely induced cyclin E stabilizes p21Cip1 protein, which then inhibits cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Consequently, cyclin E and p21Cip1 both fail to turn over, and DNA synthesis does not occur. (+info)
Determination of intrapenial blood volume using 99mTc-labeled autologous red blood cells.
In 17 impotent patients, radioisotope penography was performed using 99mTc-red blood cells (the patient's own red blood cells labeled with 99mTc) for the quantitative analysis of intrapenial blood volume. A visual sexual stimulation (VSS) was given to the patient after injecting the 99mTc-red blood cells. Patients showing a complete erection had their intrapenial blood volumes 4.2-11.2 times greater than before VSS (mean increase, 8.0 times). In cases of incomplete erection after VSS the intrapenial blood volumes were 3.3-7.0 times greater than before VSS (mean increase, 4.9 times). In cases showing a gentle rise in their penogram curves without evidence of an erection, intrapenial blood volumes after VSS were 2.0-3.3 times those before VSS (mean increaae, 2.9 times). By contrast, in cases showing no response to the VSS or no rise in penogram curve, post-VSS increases in intrapenial pool of blood were very slight, slight, only 1.4-1.7 times the original volume of blood. (+info)
Decreased expression of glutathione S-transferase M1 in HPV16-transfected human cervical keratinocytes in culture.
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 is a member of the GST mu family of cytosolic enzymes that have been hypothesized to catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to a large number of hydrophobic substances, including carcinogens such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, leading to their excretion. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that the risk of cervical cancer is related to both human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cigarette smoking. We compared the enzymatic activities and mRNA levels of GSTs in GSTM1-positive human cervical keratinocytes (HCKs) that had been transfected with HPV16 with those in the parental cells. The GSTM1 activity toward the substrate trans-stilbene oxide was 5- to 7-fold lower than in the parental cells. The relative mRNA level in HCK transfected with HPV16 E6/E7, as quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with normalization against endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression, was 6% that of the parental cells. It was 16 and 82%, respectively, in cells that were transfected with HPV16 E6 alone or HPV16 E7 alone. When quantified by competitive RT-PCR using an exogenous nuclease-resistant synthetic cyclophilin RNA transcript as control, the mRNA level in HCK transfected with HPV16 E6 was approximately 10-fold lower that that in the parental cells. It was approximately 5- to 7-fold lower in the HPV16 E7 or HPV16 E6/E7 cells. Our results suggest that viral infections, through the modulation of cellular xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, may play a role in the ability of cells to handle environmental carcinogens. (+info)
Direct and indirect modulation of ornithine decarboxylase and cyclooxygenase by UVB radiation in human skin cells.
Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is responsible for skin inflammation and tumour progression. Cyclooxygenase and ornithine decarboxylase are believed to be involved in such processes since they participate in the synthesis of mediators of inflammation and cell differentiation, respectively. We have investigated the in vitro modulation of expression of such genes by UVB radiation in different skin cell lines. We have observed that accumulation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA is unaffected by even high UVB doses in both human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, whereas cyclooxygenase-2 levels were significantly up-regulated by low UVB doses in KB human epidermoid keratinocytes. Depletion of total intracellular glutathione levels in KB cells amplified the activation, revealing a role for an oxidative component of UVB in modulating cyclooxygenase gene expression. Transfer of medium from UVB irradiated keratinocytes to fibroblasts resulted in a significant activation of cyclooxygenase expression and activity, while ornithine decarboxylase levels were unaffected. We conclude that UVB radiation can activate cyclooxygenase gene expression in human skin cells both by direct activation pathways or indirectly by inducing a paracrine mechanism. (+info)
Effects of hydroxocobalamin and carboxy-PTIO on nitrergic transmission in porcine anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles.
The effects of carboxy-PTIO and hydroxocobalamin were studied on nitrergic transmission in anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles taken during post mortem examination from young male pigs. In both muscles under resting conditions, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused contractions that were sensitive to tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and were greatly inhibited by prazosin (1 microM) and guanethidine (10-30 microM), but were not significantly affected by atropine (1 microM). In the anococcygeus muscle, but not in the retractor penis muscle, guanethidine produced a prolonged contraction. After tone was raised by guanethidine in the anococcygeus or by phenylephrine (1 microM) in the presence of guanethidine in the retractor penis, EFS caused tetrodotoxin-sensitive relaxations. The EFS-induced relaxations were abolished by the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) and its effect was partly overcome by L-arginine (1 mM), indicating it was mediated by nitrergic nerves. Carboxy-PTIO (0.1-1 mM) had no significant effect in reducing stimulation-induced nitrergic relaxations in either muscle. However, hydroxocobalamin (0.1-1 mM) caused concentration-dependent reductions of nitrergic relaxations in both muscles. Relaxations to exogenous nitric oxide (1 microM) in both muscles were abolished by carboxy-PTIO (0.3 mM) and hydroxocobalamin (0.1 mM). There were no differences in reactivity to carboxy-PTIO or hydroxocobalamin between anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles from the same species (pig). The finding also confirms earlier observations that the nitrergic transmitter is generally resistant to the NO-scavenger carboxy-PTIO. (+info)
Design and evaluation of nitrosylated alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists as potential agents for the treatment of impotence.
We designed and evaluated a new class of molecules, nitrosylated alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, as potential agents for the treatment of impotence. In in vitro studies with human and rabbit corpus cavernosum strips in organ chambers, the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-ARAs) moxisylyte and yohimbine and their corresponding nitrosylated compounds, SNO-moxisylyte (NMI-221) and SNO-yohimbine (NMI-187), concentration-dependently relaxed endothelin-induced contraction. The nitrosylated compounds were significantly more potent than the parent alpha-ARA. In human tissues, the specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor zaprinast potentiated the relaxing effects of the nitrosylated compounds. Only nitrosylated compounds induced accumulation of cyclic GMP in rabbit corpus cavernosum strips. Yohimbine and NMI-187 demonstrated a potent alpha2-blocking activity, with no significant differences in pA2 values (8.9 versus 8.2, respectively). Moxisylyte and NMI-221 showed moderate potency in antagonizing phenylephrine contraction, with comparable pA2 values for both molecules (6.5 versus 6.6, respectively). alpha-Adrenergic receptor-binding studies showed similar binding affinities for the alpha-ARA and their corresponding nitrosylated compounds. In vivo, intracavernosal injection of nitrosylated molecules caused greater increases in intracavernosal pressure (NMI-221 versus moxisylyte) that were more long lasting than those of moxisylyte or yohimbine. There were no significant differences between nitrosylated and non-nitrosylated compounds in the magnitude of systemic mean arterial pressure decrease after intracavernosal injection. alpha-ARA and the nitrosylated compounds showed no pain-inducing activity as evaluated with the paw-lick model in mice. In summary, nitrosylated alpha-ARA have the dual functionalities of nitric oxide donors and alpha-ARA. These drugs induced penile erection in animals, suggesting their possible therapeutic value as agents for the local pharmacological treatment of impotence. (+info)
NO synthase in cholinergic nerves and NO-induced relaxation in the rat isolated corpus cavernosum.
1. In the rat corpus cavernosum (CC), the distribution of immunoreactivity for neuronal and endothelial NO synthase (nNOS and eNOS), and the pattern of NOS-immunoreactive (-IR) nerves in relation to some other nerve populations, were investigated. Cholinergic nerves were specifically immunolabelled with antibodies to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT). 2. In the smooth muscle septa surrounding the cavernous spaces, and around the central and helicine arteries, the numbers of PGP- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR terminals were large, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, VAChT-, nNOS-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-IR terminals were found in few to moderate numbers. 3. Double immunolabelling revealed that VAChT- and nNOS-IR terminals, VAChT- and VIP-IR terminals, nNOS-IR and VIP-IR terminals, and TH- and NPY-IR terminals showed coinciding profiles, and co-existence was verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. TH immunoreactivity was not found in VAChT-, nNOS-, or VIP-IR nerve fibres or terminals. 4. An isolated strip preparation of the rat CC was developed, and characterized. In this preparation, cumulative addition of NO to noradrenaline (NA)-contracted strips, produced concentration-dependent, rapid, and almost complete relaxations. Electrical field stimulation of endothelin-1-contracted preparations produced frequency-dependent responses: a contractile twitch followed by a fast relaxant response. After cessation of stimulation, there was a slow relaxant phase. Inhibition of NO synthesis, or blockade of guanylate cyclase, abolished the first relaxant phase, whereas the second relaxation was unaffected. 5. The results suggest that in the rat CC, nNOS, VAChT- and VIP-immunoreactivities can be found in the same parasympathetic cholinergic neurons. Inhibitory neurotransmission involves activation of the NO-system, and the release of other, as yet unknown, transmitters. (+info)