(1/234) Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks.
OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes as "benchmarks", and updated them by searching the Medline database for more recent information. RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. We could find little scientific evidence of adverse effects on sexual, psychological, or emotional health. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided with the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks. (+info)
(2/234) Penile intraepithelial neoplasia--a veiled lesion in genitourinary medicine.
Penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is a clinically well known condition. However, its diagnosis is often difficult. We present four cases of PIN, seen in our department. Various histological patterns ranging from PIN I to PIN III were noted in these cases. (+info)
(3/234) Tumours of the prostate and penis.
Tumours of the male genital tract, excluding the testes, are relatively rare in the six major domestic animals. The most important tumours are prostate carcinoma and transmissible venereal tumour of the penis in dogs, fibropapilloma of the penis in bulls, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in horses, and squamous papilloma in pigs. Four histological types of canine prostate carcinoma exist: alveolar papillary, acinar, organoid, and poorly differentiated. The biological behaviour of prostate carcinomas is similar to that in man, with frequent metastasis to the regional pelvic nodes, bones, and lungs. There appears to be no relationship between the common diffuse glandular hyperplasia and carcinoma in the prostate of dogs. A unique lesion of dogs is squamous metaplasia of the prostate related to estrogen-producing Sertoli cell tumours of the testis. Three different transmissible tumours of the penis occur in domestic animals. The canine venereal tumours can be transmitted only by intact tumour cells during licking and coital contact, whereas bovine fibropapillomas and porcine squamous papillomas can be transmitted by cell-free material. In cattle, the fibropapillomas are caused by the same virus that produces cutaneous papillomatosis. All three tumours are benign and usually regress spontaneously. (+info)
(4/234) Distinct patterns of alteration of myc genes associated with integration of human papillomavirus type 16 or type 45 DNA in two genital tumours.
We previously described two genital carcinomas (IC2, IC4) containing human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)- or HPV-18-related sequences integrated in chromosomal bands containing the c-myc (8q24) or N-myc (2p24) gene, respectively. The c-myc gene was rearranged and amplified in IC2 cells without evidence of overexpression. The N-myc gene was amplified and highly transcribed in IC4 cells. Here, the sequence of an 8039 bp IC4 DNA fragment containing the integrated viral sequences and the cellular junctions is reported. A 3948 bp segment of the genome of HPV-45 encompassing the upstream regulatory region and the E6 and E7 ORFs was integrated into the untranslated part of N-myc exon 3, upstream of the N-myc polyadenylation signal. Both N-myc and HPV-45 sequences were amplified 10- to 20-fold. The 3' ends of the major N-myc transcript were mapped upstream of the 5' junction. A minor N-myc/HPV-45 fusion transcript was also identified, as well as two abundant transcripts from the HPV-45 E6-E7 region. Large amounts of N-myc protein were detected in IC4 cells. A major alteration of c-myc sequences in IC2 cells involved the insertion of a non-coding sequence into the second intron and their co-amplification with the third exon, without any evidence for the integration of HPV-16 sequences within or close to the gene. Different patterns of myc gene alterations may thus be associated with integration of HPV DNA in genital tumours, including the activation of the protooncogene via a mechanism of insertional mutagenesis and/or gene amplification. (+info)
(5/234) Erythroplasia of queyrat: coinfection with cutaneous carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 8 and genital papillomaviruses in a carcinoma in situ.
Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated 12 paraffin-embedded biopsies from eight patients with penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and control biopsies of inflammatory penile lesions, of genital Bowen's disease, and of premalignant/malignant cervical or vulvar lesions by 10 different polymerase chain reaction protocols for the presence of cutaneous and genital/mucosal human papillomaviruses. Human papillomavirus typing was performed by sequencing (cloned) polymerase chain reaction products. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and in none of the controls with inflammatory penile lesions. The rare cutaneous carcinogenic epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus type 8 was present in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and the genital high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 in seven of eight patients (88%). In addition to human papillomavirus type 8 and human papillomavirus type 16, four patients carried the genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 39 and/or type 51. All human papillomavirus type 8 sequences found in erythroplasia of Queyrat showed some polymorphism among each other and differed in specific nucleotide exchanges from the human papillomavirus type 8 reference sequence. Viral load determinations (human papillomavirus copies/beta-globin gene copies) by realtime polymerase chain reactions showed that the human papillomavirus type 16 levels in the erythroplasia of Queyrat biopsies were one to five orders of magnitude higher than the human papillomavirus type 8 levels. Human papillomavirus type 8 was not detected in cervical or vulvar precancerous and cancerous lesions and in Bowen's disease lesions that carried genital human papillomavirus types. The data suggest that in erythroplasia of Queyrat, in contrast to other genital neoplasias, a coinfection with human papillomavirus type 8 and carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus types occurs. The presence or absence of human papillomavirus type 8 might help to distinguish between penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's diseases. (+info)
(6/234) Human papillomavirus-associated cancers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anogenital malignancies occur frequently in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of our study was to determine if the high frequency of these cancers is due to lifestyle factors associated with both HPV and HIV infections or to immunosuppression following HIV infection. METHODS: We studied invasive and in situ HPV-associated cancers among 309 365 U.S. patients with HIV infection/AIDS (257 605 males and 51 760 females) from 5 years before the date of AIDS onset to 5 years after this date. Sex-, race-, and age-standardized ratios of observed-to-expected cancers served as measures of relative risk (RR). Trend tests were used to evaluate changes in the RRs during the 10 years spanning AIDS onset. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: All HPV-associated cancers in AIDS patients occurred in statistically significant excess compared with the expected numbers of cancers. For in situ cancers, overall risks were significantly increased for cervical (RR = 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3-5.0), vulvar/vaginal (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.0-7. 0), anal (in females, RR = 7.8 [95% CI = 0.2-43.6]; in males, RR = 60.1 [95% CI = 49.2-72.7]), and penile (RR = 6.9; 95% CI = 4.2-10.6) cancers, and RRs increased during the 10 years spanning AIDS onset for carcinomas in situ of the cervix (P: for trend <.001), vulva/vagina (P: for trend =.04), and penis (P: for trend =.04). For invasive cancers, overall risks were significantly increased for cervical (RR = 5.4; 95% CI = 3.9-7.2), vulvar/vaginal (RR = 5.8; 95% CI = 3.0-10.2), and anal (RR = 6.8; 95% CI = 2.7-14.0) cancers in females and for anal (RR = 37.9; 95% CI = 33.0-43.4), penile (RR = 3. 7; 95% CI = 2.0-6.2), tonsillar (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.8-3.8), and conjunctival (RR = 14.6; 95% CI = 5.8-30.0) cancers in males. However, RRs for invasive cancers changed little during the 10 years spanning AIDS onset. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-associated malignancies occur at increased rates in persons with HIV/AIDS. Increasing RRs for in situ cancers to and beyond the time of AIDS onset may reflect the gradual loss of control over HPV-infected keratinocytes with advancing immunosuppression. However, the lack of a similar increase for invasive HPV-associated cancers suggests that late-stage cancer invasion is not greatly influenced by immune status. (+info)
(7/234) Identification and functional analysis of sequence rearrangements in the long control region of human papillomavirus type 16 Af-1 variants isolated from Ugandan penile carcinomas.
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the predominant HPV isolate found in malignancies of male and female lower genital tracts. However, only a small percentage of individuals infected with high-risk HPVs develop a genital neoplasia, suggesting that additional events at both the cellular and the virus level are necessary for the progression to cancer, including genetic mutations/rearrangements of viral sequences involved in the oncogenic process. In this study, the genetic stability of the long control region (LCR) (nt 7289-114), which regulates expression levels of oncoproteins E6 and E7, was analysed in HPV-16 isolates from penile carcinoma (PC) biopsies of patients recruited from Uganda, one of the countries with the highest incidence of genital cancers in both men and women. Nucleotide changes within the LCR region typical of the African-1 (Af-1) lineage were observed in all HPV-16 isolates. Two out of five samples showed further rearrangements of the enhancer region. The functional activity of LCR with Af-1 mutations and/or rearrangements was evaluated by cloning each LCR into CAT expression vectors, followed by transfection in several epithelial and non-epithelial cell lines. CAT expression levels driven by a rearranged LCR were significantly higher than those driven by Af-1 or European prototype LCRs. Furthermore, in the NIH3T3 focus formation assay, the transforming activity of E6 and E7 genes, driven by a mutated or rearranged LCR, was 1.4- to 3.0-fold higher, respectively. These results indicate that rearrangements within the LCR of HPV-16 isolated from African PCs are frequently found (2 out of 5, 40%). It is also shown that increased HPV LCR activity is associated with an increased E6/E7-mediated in vitro transforming activity, suggesting that natural variants can play a major role in the pathogenesis of genital carcinomas. (+info)
(8/234) Intra-arterial chemotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent carcinomas of the penis and anal canal: an active treatment modality with curative potential.
The prognosis of locally advanced or recurrent carcinomas of the penis (PE) and of the anal canal (AC) after conventional treatment is dismal. We report 16 patients (eight with AC carcinomas and eight with PE cancers) treated by intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy. Fifteen of them were treated for locally advanced or recurrent disease and one in an adjuvant setting. The chemotherapy was administered via a femoral IA catheter with its tip located above the aortic bifurcation, under the inferior mesenteric artery. It consisted of eight push injections, given over a 48-h period, of the following drug combination: cisplatin 8.5 mg m(-2), 5-FU 275 mg m(-2), methotrexate 27.5 mg m(-2), mitomycin C 1.2 mg m(-2), and bleomycin 4 mg m(-2). Leucovorin was given po, 4 x 15 mg day(-1), during the chemotherapy and for 3 days thereafter. A total of 52 cycles of treatment were administered. Of the 15 patients evaluable for response, six obtained a CR (three PE, three AC) and eight a PR. Among the complete responders, four are alive and disease-free 2-15 years after treatment. The other patients enjoyed an objective response lasting 3-25 months (median 7 months). Four patients developed grade III/IV haematological toxicity with three episodes of febrile neutropenia, one of them with a fatal outcome due to patient's failure to obtain medical attention at the onset of his fever, one a grade III mucositis of the glans, and four a grade III/IV cutaneous toxicity, the latter caused by the IA administration of bleomycin. In conclusion, IA chemotherapy is effective and potentially curative in locoregionally advanced or recurrent carcinomas of the penis and of the anus. Its contribution in the primary management of advanced penile or anal carcinoma should be prospectively investigated. (+info)