(1/125) In vivo post-translational processing and subunit reconstitution of cephalosporin acylase from Pseudomonas sp. 130.
Cephalosporin acylases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze cephalosporin C (CPC) and/or glutaryl 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) to produce 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). The acylase from Pseudomonas sp. 130 (CA-130) is highly active on GL-7ACA and glutaryl 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid (GL-7ADCA), but much less active on CPC and penicillin G. The gene encoding the enzyme is expressed as a precursor polypeptide consisting of a signal peptide followed by alpha- and beta-subunits, which are separated by a spacer peptide. Removing the signal peptide has little effect on precursor processing or enzyme activity. Substitution of the first residue of the beta-subunit, Ser, results in a complete loss of enzyme activity, and substitution of the last residue of the spacer, Gly, leads to an inactive and unprocessed precursor. The precursor is supposed to be processed autocatalytically, probably intramolecularly. The two subunits of the acylase, which separately are inactive, can generate enzyme activity when coexpressed in Escherichia coli. Data on this and other related acylases indicate that the cephalosporin acylases may belong to a novel class of enzymes (N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases) described recently. (+info)
(2/125) Intramolecular autoproteolysis initiates the maturation of penicillin amidase from Escherichia coli.
The penicillin amidase (PA) from Escherichia coli belongs to a group of proteolytically processed bacterial enzymes. The mechanism of the maturation of the single polypeptide proenzyme has been studied for the PA from E. coli using a slowly processing mutant proenzyme. The mutant proenzyme was constructed by replacing Thr with Gly in the Thr(263)-Ser(264) bond that must be hydrolysed in active PA. The mutant proenzyme was purified by biospecific affinity chromatography using an immobilized monoclonal antibody against PA. The maturation of the free and covalently immobilized purified proenzyme was studied in vitro. For the free proenzyme the same products with PA activity as observed in homogenates of wild-type PA-producing E. coli cells were found to be formed during this process. A kinetic analysis of the possible inter- and intramolecular processes involved in the maturation demonstrated that unambiguous evidence for the existence of intramolecular processes can only be obtained in systems where intermolecular processes are excluded. The Gly(263)-Ser(264) bond was found to be hydrolysed first in the free and immobilized mutant proenzyme, based on determinations of mass spectra, N-terminal sequences and active site concentrations. In the system with immobilized proenzyme intermolecular processes are excluded, demonstrating that this bond is hydrolysed by intramolecular autoproteolysis. Based on the known three-dimensional structure of the PA from E. coli the same maturation mechanism should apply for the wild-type proenzyme. (+info)
(3/125) pH dependence of penicillin amidase enantioselectivity for charged substrates.
The pH dependence of E (enantiomeric ratio or enantioselectivity, a quantitative measure for enzyme stereospecificity) was studied for penicillin amidase catalysed hydrolysis of charged enantiomeric substrates. Theoretical analysis shows that a pH dependence can only be observed around the pK values of groups in the active site whose ionisation control the enzyme activity. For charged substrates that may perturb these pK values, a pH dependence of E is also expected. This was experimentally verified around these pK values. The S'(1)-stereospecificity of penicillin amidase was studied for the hydrolysis of the enantiomeric phenylacetyl-S/R-Phe and for the racemic phenylacetyl-S,R-PhG. The S(1)-stereospecificity was investigated for the hydrolysis of the enantiomeric S/R-PhG-NH(2). The observed pH modulation of E (more than 3-fold for the studied substrates in the pH range 4.5-9) was found to be a result of compensatory effects for binding and catalysis. The ratios k(cat, S)/k(cat,R) and K(m,S)/K(m,R) for the hydrolysis of the enantiomeric phenylacetyl-Phe were found to decrease from 1000 to 10 and from 0.1 to 0.01, respectively in the pH range 5-8. The dependence was stronger for the S'(1)- than for the S(1)-subsite. This is probably due to the stronger influence of the substrate carboxyl group in the S'(1)-subsite than that of the substrate amino group in the S(1)-subsite on the pK of the N-terminal Ser B1 that is essential for the activity. The observed pH dependence of E was used to discuss the importance of ground-state interactions for discrimination between enantiomers and for enzyme catalysis in general. The experimental results conform to the split site model according to which a better binding must not be fundamentally inhibitory. (+info)
(4/125) Enzymatic synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics using penicillin-G acylase in frozen media.
Penicillin-G acylase (EC 188.8.131.52) from Escherichia coli catalyzed the synthesis of various beta-lactam antibiotics in ice at -20 degrees C with higher yields than obtained in solution at 20 degrees C. The initial ratio between aminolysis and hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme complex in the synthesis of cephalexin increased from 1.3 at 20 degrees C to 25 at -20 degrees C. The effect on the other antibiotics studied was less, leading us to conclude that freezing of the reaction medium influences the hydrolysis of each nucleophile-acyl-enzyme complex to a different extent. Only free penicillin-G acylase could perform transformations in frozen media: immobilized preparations showed a low, predominantly hydrolytic activity under these conditions. (+info)
(5/125) Processing and functional display of the 86 kDa heterodimeric penicillin G acylase on the surface of phage fd.
The large heterodimeric penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis was displayed on the surface of phage fd. We fused the coding sequence (alpha subunit-internal peptide-beta subunit) to the gene of a phage coat protein. A modified g3p signal sequence was used to direct the polypeptide to the periplasm. Here we show that a heterodimeric enzyme can be expressed as a fusion protein that matures to an active biocatalyst connected to the coat protein of phage fd, resulting in a phage to which the beta-subunit is covalently linked and the alpha-subunit is non-covalently attached. The enzyme can be displayed either fused to the minor coat protein g3p or fused to the major coat protein g8p. In both cases the penicillin G acylase on the phage has the same Michaelis constant as its freely soluble counterpart, indicating a proper folding and catalytic activity of the displayed enzyme. The display of the heterodimer on phage not only allows its further use in protein engineering but also offers the possibility of applying this technology for the excretion of the enzyme into the extracellular medium, facilitating purification of the protein. With the example of penicillin acylase the upper limit for a protein to become functionally displayed by phage fd has been further explored. Polyvalent display was not observed despite the use of genetic constructs designed for this aim. These results are discussed in relation to the pore size being formed by the g4p multimer. (+info)
(6/125) Crystal structure of penicillin G acylase from the Bro1 mutant strain of Providencia rettgeri.
Penicillin G acylase is an important enzyme in the commercial production of semisynthetic penicillins used to combat bacterial infections. Mutant strains of Providencia rettgeri were generated from wild-type cultures subjected to nutritional selective pressure. One such mutant, Bro1, was able to use 6-bromohexanamide as its sole nitrogen source. Penicillin acylase from the Bro1 strain exhibited an altered substrate specificity consistent with the ability of the mutant to process 6-bromohexanamide. The X-ray structure determination of this enzyme was undertaken to understand its altered specificity and to help in the design of site-directed mutants with desired specificities. In this paper, the structure of the Bro1 penicillin G acylase has been solved at 2.5 A resolution by molecular replacement. The R-factor after refinement is 0.154 and R-free is 0.165. Of the 758 residues in the Bro1 penicillin acylase heterodimer (alpha-subunit, 205; beta-subunit, 553), all but the eight C-terminal residues of the alpha-subunit have been modeled based on a partial Bro1 sequence and the complete wild-type P. rettgeri sequence. A tightly bound calcium ion coordinated by one residue from the alpha-subunit and five residues from the beta-subunit has been identified. This enzyme belongs to the superfamily of Ntn hydrolases and uses Ogamma of Ser beta1 as the characteristic N-terminal nucleophile. A mutation of the wild-type Met alpha140 to Leu in the Bro1 acylase hydrophobic specificity pocket is evident from the electron density and is consistent with the observed specificity change for Bro1 acylase. The electron density for the N-terminal Gln of the alpha-subunit is best modeled by the cyclized pyroglutamate form. Examination of aligned penicillin acylase and cephalosporin acylase primary sequences, in conjunction with the P. rettgeri and Escherichia coli penicillin acylase crystal structures, suggests several mutations that could potentially allow penicillin acylase to accept charged beta-lactam R-groups and to function as a cephalosporin acylase and thus be used in the manufacture of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. (+info)
(7/125) The role of alpha-amino group of the N-terminal serine of beta subunit for enzyme catalysis and autoproteolytic activation of glutaryl 7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase.
Glutaryl 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7-ACA) acylase of Pseudomonas sp. strain GK16 catalyzes the cleavage of the amide bond in the GL-7-ACA side chain to produce glutaric acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). The active enzyme is an (alphabeta)(2) heterotetramer of two non-identical subunits that are cleaved autoproteolytically from an enzymatically inactive precursor polypeptide. In this study, we prepared and characterized a chemically modified enzyme, and also examined an effect of the modification on enzyme catalysis and autocatalytic processing of the enzyme precursor. We found that treatment of the enzyme with cyanate ion led to a significant loss of the enzyme activity. Structural and functional analyses of the modified enzyme showed that carbamylation of the free alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Ser-199 of the beta subunit resulted in the loss of the enzyme activity. The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters indicates that a single ionizing group is involved in enzyme catalysis with pK(a) = 6.0, which could be attributed to the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Ser-199. The carbamylation also inhibited the secondary processing of the enzyme precursor, suggesting a possible role of the alpha-amino group for the reaction. Mutagenesis of the invariant N-terminal residue Ser-199 confirmed the key function of its side chain hydroxyl group in both enzyme catalysis and autoproteolytic activation. Partial activity and correct processing of a mutant S199T were in agreement with the general mechanism of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases. Our results indicate that GL-7-ACA acylase utilizes as a nucleophile Ser-199 in both enzyme activity and autocatalytic processing and most importantly its own alpha-amino group of the Ser-199 as a general base catalyst for the activation of the hydroxyl group both in enzyme catalysis and in the secondary cleavage of the enzyme precursor. All of the data also imply that GL-7-ACA acylase is a member of a novel class of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases that have a single catalytic center for enzyme catalysis. (+info)
(8/125) The 2.0 A crystal structure of cephalosporin acylase.
BACKGROUND: Semisynthetic cephalosporins are primarily synthesized from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), which is usually obtained by chemical deacylation of cephalosporin C (CPC). The chemical production of 7-ACA includes, however, several expensive steps and requires thorough treatment of chemical wastes. Therefore, an enzymatic conversion of CPC to 7-ACA by cephalosporin acylase is of great interest. The biggest obstacle preventing this in industrial production is that cephalosporin acylase uses glutaryl-7ACA as a primary substrate and has low substrate specificity for CPC. RESULTS: We have solved the first crystal structure of a cephalosporin acylase from Pseudomonas diminuta at 2.0 A resolution. The overall structure looks like a bowl with two "knobs" consisting of helix- and strand-rich regions, respectively. The active site is mostly formed by the distinctive structural motif of the N-terminal (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily. Superposition of the 61 residue active-site pocket onto that of penicillin G acylase shows an rmsd in Calpha positions of 1.38 A. This indicates structural similarity in the active site between these two enzymes, but their overall structures are elsewhere quite different. CONCLUSION: The substrate binding pocket of the P. diminuta cephalosporin acylase provides detailed insight into the ten key residues responsible for the specificity of the cephalosporin C side chain in four classes of cephalosporin acylases, and it thereby forms a basis for the design of an enzyme with an improved conversion rate of CPC to 7-ACA. The structure also provides structural evidence that four of the five different classes of cephalosporin acylases can be grouped into one family of the Ntn hydrolase superfamily. (+info)