Major pelvic fractures: identification of patients at high risk.
The identification of high-risk factors in patients with fractures of the pelvis at the time of presentation would facilitate investigation and management. In a series of 174 consecutive patients with unstable fractures of the pelvic ring, clinical data were used to calculate the injury severity score (ISS), the triage-revised trauma score (T-RTS), and the Glasgow coma scale (GCS). The morphology of the fracture was classified according to the AO system and that of Burgess et al. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate methods in order to determine which presenting features were identified with high risk. Univariate analysis showed an association between mortality and an ISS over 25, a T-RTS below eight, age over 65 years, systolic blood pressure under 100 mmHg, a GCS of less than 8, blood transfusion of more than ten units in the first 24 hours and colloid infusion of more than six litres in the first 24 hours. Multivariate analysis showed that age, T-RTS and ISS were independent determinants of mortality. A T-RTS of eight or less identified the cohort of patients at greatest risk (65%). The morphology of the fracture was not predictive of mortality. We recommend the use of the T-RTS in the acute situation in order to identify patients at high risk. (+info)
Changes in the interposed capsule after Chiari osteotomy. An experimental study on rabbits with acetabular dysplasia.
We have investigated the changes in the interposed capsule after a Chiari pelvic osteotomy, in an experimental study on dysplastic hips in 20 adolescent rabbits. Radiographic, macroscopic and microscopic observations were made up to 12 months after operation. The new acetabular roof had incorporated the interposed capsule and remodelled completely by six months. By 12 months there was a new, stable hip with continuity between the capsule and the original acetabular cartilage. Histologically, the capsule underwent metaplastic change to fibrocartilaginous tissue after six months, with some hyaline-like cartilage near the joint surface. These changes in the interposed capsule play an important role in the formation of a new joint after a Chiari pelvic osteotomy. (+info)
An algorithm to standardise the investigation of the undiagnosed traumatic painful adult hip: results at one year.
INTRODUCTION: A significant number of adults present to accident and emergency departments with a painful hip following a fall. When plain radiography is non-diagnostic, it has been traditionally difficult to decide on further investigations as rapid access MRI is still unavailable in many NHS hospitals and, therefore, alternative methods of reliable investigation are required. PATIENTS & METHODS: An algorithm was designed for the management of these patients without the availability of MRI investigation. Over a 60-week period, 278 patients were admitted of whom 31 were adult patients with trauma-related hip pain with no fracture on plain radiography. RESULTS: We revealed 42% had fractures of the hip or pelvic girdle. None of the hip fractures deteriorated to a worse prognostic grade during the investigation process and no hip fractures were missed. CONCLUSIONS: This approach towards a challenging diagnostic problem has been successful in identifying all hip fractures, and no fracture has deteriorated to a worse prognostic group. (+info)
En-bloc resection, extracorporeal irradiation, and re-implantation in limb salvage for bony malignancies.
We treated 50 patients with bony malignancy by en-bloc resection, extracorporeal irradiation with 50 Gy and re-implantation of the bone segment. The mean survivor follow-up was 38 months (12 to 92) when 42 patients were alive and without disease. There were four recurrences. The functional results were good according to the Mankin score (17 excellent, 13 good, nine fair, three failures), the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score (mean 77) and the Toronto Extremity Salvage score (mean 81). There was solid union, but bone resorption was seen in some cases. The dose of radiation was lethal to all cells and produced a dead autograft of perfect fit. Extracorporeal irradiation is a useful technique for limb salvage when there is reasonable residual bone stock. It allows effective re-attachment of tendons and produces a lasting biological reconstruction. There should be no risk of local recurrence or of radiotherapy-induced malignancy in the replanted bone. (+info)
Medial and lateral osteoarthritis of the knee is related to variations of hip and pelvic anatomy.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated if increased risk of combined hip and lateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) could be attributed to anatomical reasons in the hip region resulting in increased abductor moment over the knee. METHODS: We measured pelvic width, femoral offset, femoral neck length and angle in 29 women with lateral knee OA (13 unilateral, 16 bilateral) and 27 women with bilateral medial OA. Twenty-one of these patients with normal hips (lateral/medial OA of the knee=12/9) and 35 with associated hip OA (lateral/medial OA of the knee=17/18) were evaluated separately. Radiographic examinations in 14 women planned for hip prosthesis because of failures after hip fracture acted as controls. RESULTS: Patients with lateral OA of the knee had wider pelvis than controls (13.7 mm increased distance between the medial borders of the acetabulum, P=0.001). Patients with medial OA had 11.4mm longer distance from the centre of the femoral head to the centre of the proximal part of the femoral shaft (P=0.005), corresponding to a higher offset. The pelvic and hip anatomy also differed between patients with medial and lateral OA of the knee. In the groups without hip OA, presence of lateral knee OA was associated with a wider pelvis (P=0.009), shorter femoral neck (P=0.02) and Head-Shaft distance (P=0.04). In the groups with OA of the hip associated lateral OA of the knee also implied increased Neck Shaft angle (coxa valga, P=0.008), but there was no difference in pelvic width (P=0.15). We found a shorter lever arm over the hip in lateral knee OA compared to medial knee OA (P=0.02), but not when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that occurrence of medial or lateral OA has a biomechanical background originating from pelvis and hip anatomy. (+info)
Protein consumption is an important predictor of lower limb bone mass in elderly women.
BACKGROUND: The effect of protein intake on bone density is uncertain, and evidence exists for beneficial effects of both low and high protein intakes. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the relation between protein consumption and bone mass in elderly women with allowance for other lifestyle factors affecting bone metabolism. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of a population-based sample of 1077 women aged 75 +/- 3 y. At baseline, protein consumption was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mass and structure were measured by using quantitative ultrasound of the heel. One year later, hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Subjects consumed a mean (+/-SD) of 80.5 +/- 27.8 g protein/d (1.19 +/- 0.44 g protein/kg body wt). Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between protein intake and qualitative ultrasound of the heel and BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, and other nutrients. The dose-response effect was best characterized by protein consumption expressed in tertiles, such that subjects in the lowest tertile (<66 g protein/d) had significantly lower qualitative ultrasound of the heel (1.3%) and hip BMD (2.6%) than did the subjects in the higher tertiles (>87 g protein/d). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that protein intakes for elderly women above current recommendations may be necessary to optimize bone mass. (+info)
CT-guided percutaneous fixation of pelvic fractures. Case reports.
Unstable pelvic fractures are usually associated with high impact energy trauma. As to surgical procedures the most frequently used methods are open reduction and inner fixation (ORIF), the other methods of stabilizing the unstable posterior pelvic ring are percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation under fluoroscopic control and CT-guided percutaneous fixation. The last mentioned procedure eliminates some of the problems associated with surgical treatment: prevents excessive blood loss during manipulation of the fracture hematom, lowers the possibility of infection, allows more accurate screw placement with direct measuring of the screw length and decreases the possibility of nerve injury. The CT-guided fixation is a delicate procedure and its result depends among others on the cooperation between operating room and CT room personnel. The radiologist and CT technologist have to know the operation technique and have to understand surgeon's requirements. In the available literature only a little was written and mentioned about the exact role of radiologist and CT technologist in the team. The aim of this article is to present the operation technique according to authors' own experience with two operated patients and to mention the surgeon's requirements on CT team. (+info)
Sagittal alignment of spine and pelvis regulated by pelvic incidence: standard values and prediction of lordosis.
Pelvis and spinal curves were studied with an angular parameter typical of pelvis morphology: pelvic incidence. A significant chain of correlations between positional pelvic and spinal parameters and incidence is known. This study investigated standards of incidence and a predictive equation of lordosis from selective pelvic and spinal individual parameters. One hundred and forty nine (78 men and 71 women) healthy adults, aged 19-50 years, with no spinal disorders, were included and had a full-spine lateral X-ray in a standardised upright position. Computerised technology was used for the measurement of angular parameters. Mean-deviation section of each parameter and Pearson correlation test were calculated. A multivariate selection algorithm was running with the lordosis (predicted variable) and the other spinal and pelvic parameters (predictor variables), to determine the best sets of predictors to include in the model. A low incidence (<44 degrees ) decreased sacral-slope and the lordosis is flattened. A high incidence (>62 degrees ) increased sacral-slope and the lordosis is more pronounced. Lordosis predictive equation is based on incidence, kyphosis, sacral-slope and +/-T9 tilt. The confidence limits and the residuals (the difference between measured and predicted lordosis) assessed the predicted lordosis accuracy of the model: respectively, +/-1.65 and 2.41 degrees with the 4-item model; +/-1.73 and 3.62 degrees with the 3-item model. The ability of the functional spine-pelvis unit to search for a sagittal balance depended both on the incidence and on the variation section of the other positional parameters. Incidence gave an adaptation potential at two levels of positional compensation: overlying state (kyphosis, T9 tilt), underlying state (sacral slope, pelvic tilt). The biomechanical and clinical conditions of the standing posture (as in scoliosis, low back pain, spondylisthesis, spine surgery, obesity and postural impairments) can be studied by comparing the measured lordosis with the predicted lordosis. (+info)