(1/2521) A World Wide Web selected bibliography for pediatric infectious diseases.
A pediatric infectious diseases bibliography of selected medical reference citations has been developed and placed on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://www.pedid.uthscsa.edu. A regularly updated bibliography of >2,500 selected literature citations representing general reviews and key articles has been organized under a standard outline for individual infectious diseases and related topics that cover the breadth of pediatric infectious diseases. Citations are categorized by infectious disease or clinical syndrome, and access can be achieved by the disease or by syndrome or the name of the pathogen. Abstracts, and in some cases the complete text of articles, may be viewed by use of hypertext links. The bibliography provides medical students, residents, fellows, and clinicians with a constantly available resource of current literature citations in pediatric infectious diseases. The WWW is an emerging educational and clinical resource for the practice of clinical infectious diseases. (+info)
(2/2521) Physician management in primary care.
Minimal explicit consensus criteria in the management of patients with four indicator conditions were established by an ad hoc committee of primary care physicians practicing in different locations. These criteria were then applied to the practices of primary care physicians located in a single community by abstracting medical records and obtaining questionnaire data about patients with the indicator conditions. A standardized management score for each physician was used as the dependent variable in stepwise regression analysis with physician/practice and patient/disease characteristics as the candidate independent variables. For all physicians combined, the mean management scores were high, ranging from .78 to .93 for the four conditions. For two of the conditions, care of the normal infant and pregnant woman, the management scores were better for pediatricians and obstetricians respectively than for family physicians. For the other two conditions, adult onset diabetes and congestive heart failure, there were no differences between the management scores of family physicians and internists. Patient/disease characteristics did not contribute significantly to explaining the variation in the standardized management scores. (+info)
(3/2521) Antibiotic use at a pediatric age.
For infections in infants and children, the successful antibiotic treatment depends primarily on rapid diagnosis of the disease, identification of pathogenic microorganisms, and appropriate application of specialized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge of antibiotics in children. In infants and children, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs may differ considerably in comparison with adults. Because of known toxicity, certain drugs such as chloramphenicol in high doses, the sulfonamides, and tetracycline should not be used in neonates. In this article, we describe these peculiarities of children and discuss the proper use of antibiotics in children. (+info)
(4/2521) Paediatric home care in Tower Hamlets: a working partnership with parents.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the first two years of a paediatric home care service. DESIGN: Observational cross sectional study, 1989-91. SETTING: One inner London health district. PATIENTS: 611 children referred to the service; 50 children selected from those referred during the first year, whose parents were interviewed and whose general practitioners were invited to complete a questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Description and costs of service; views of parents and general practitioners of selected sample of children. RESULTS: In its second year the team received 303 referrals and made 4004 visits at a salary cost of 98000 pounds, an average of 323 pounds/referral and 24 pounds/visit. This represented a referral rate of 3.2% (258/7939) of inpatient episodes from the main referring hospital between 1 December 1989 and 30 November 1990. Of all referrals to the service, 343(56%) came from hospital inpatient wards. The service was used by disadvantaged and ethnic minority families. The children's parents (in 28(61%) families) and the home care team did a wide range of nursing tasks in the home. Parents of 47(94%) children sampled agreed to be interviewed, and those of 43(91%) found the service useful; guidance and support were most commonly appreciated (33, 70%). Parents of 25(53%) children said that hospital stay or attendance had been reduced or avoided. Parents and general practitioners disagreed on clinical responsibility in 10 children, and communication was a problem for some general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: The service enabled children to receive advanced nursing care at home. Clinical responsibility should be agreed between parents and professionals at referral. (+info)
(5/2521) Diagnosis and treatment of chronic renal failure in children.
This activity is designed for primary care and specialist physicians. GOAL: To provide an overview of the unique features and treatment of chronic renal failure in children. OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe the diagnosis of chronic renal failure in children. 2. Discuss the medical treatment of chronic renal failure in children. 3. Understand the treatment of end-stage renal disease in children. 4. Discuss the financial impact of caring for a child with chronic renal failure. (+info)
(6/2521) Subspecialist referrals in an academic, pediatric setting: rationale, rates, and compliance.
Appropriate referrals reduce healthcare costs and enhance patient satisfaction. We evaluated the subspecialty referral pattern of a managed care general pediatric office over a 4-month period. Three-hundred-forty-six referrals (267 meeting inclusion criteria) to 24 subspecialties were generated during 4,219 office visits, with five subspecialties receiving 59% of the referrals. The main objective of each referral was management (100), diagnostic assistance (75), special procedure (63), or a combination (29). Patients kept less than half of the referral appointments, with the highest (80%) and lowest (28%) compliance rates observed in cardiology and ophthalmology, respectively. Appointments made within four weeks of the referral were more likely to be kept than those with greater lag time (P = 0.001). The subspecialists prepared written, post-consultation responses to the referring physician in 73% of cases. Presumptive and post-consultation diagnoses were congruent in 78% of those cases in which both diagnoses were noted. Overall, the managed care format enabled our practice to track referral outcomes. The subspecialists' written responses also allowed for an educational exchange between physicians. Compliance with referral appointments is a substantial problem that needs to be addressed. (+info)
(7/2521) Determining whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients.
This activity is designed for healthcare providers making formulary decisions for managed care organizations. GOAL: To help clinicians determine whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: 1. List general considerations for establishing a pediatric drug formulary. 2. Understand the importance of growth and development when selecting drug therapy for pediatric patients. 3. Discuss potential difficulties with administering medications during school hours. 4. Identify specific medications within the drug classes of antibiotics, asthma medications, endocrine, and gastrointestinal agents that should be available on a pediatric drug formulary. (+info)
(8/2521) Barriers to pediatric injury prevention counseling.
OBJECTIVES: Physicians cite numerous barriers to incorporating injury prevention counseling into routine care. Health behavior models suggest that beliefs about barriers are associated with physician characteristics. This study explores associations between physician characteristics and physician perceptions of barriers. METHODS: Self administered structured questionnaires were sent to all five North Carolina (United States) pediatric residency programs. A total of 160 (72%) physicians training in pediatrics or medicine-pediatrics in these programs replied. Associations between perceived barriers and knowledge, gender, training, experience, and correlation between perceived barriers and other physician beliefs about injury prevention counseling, were measured. RESULTS: Although most residents believed that talking to parents about injury prevention during routine visits was important, they felt they lacked time, did not think to ask parents about injury prevention, or had more important things to do. The more importance residents placed on asking parents about hazards, the less the extent to which barriers were perceived (r = 0.32). Barriers were perceived to a greater extent by residents who thought their preceptors did not expect them to counsel about injury prevention (r = 0.28), lacked confidence that their counseling helped parents (r = 0.32), or felt uncomfortable counseling parents about injury prevention (r = 0.18). Knowledge, residency year, training, and previous experience with injury were not related to perceived barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Residency programs should teach the importance of injury prevention; provide opportunities for residents to become comfortable talking with parents about this; and train residents in the appropriate use of counseling as one strategy for addressing injury prevention. (+info)