The real incidence of extracapsular (satellite) cysts of liver echinococcus.
BACKGROUND: The presence of extracapsular (Satellite) cysts in liver echinococcus granulosus is known for many years. In one of our previous studies of radiological (CT) material they were found to be present in 16% of cases. METHODS: In the present study the operative findings, in cases of total capsectomy (cystopericystectomy) or partial lobectomy are presented. RESULTS: The real incidence of these cysts in operative specimens was as high as 29,5%. They were present in 15 out of 51 totally excised cysts. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that satellite cysts are present more often than they are radiologically detected. As they can be incriminated as a cause of recurrence of the disease they must be excised en block with the main parasitic cysts, by means of more radical procedures such as cystopericystectomy or partial hepatectomy, whenever it is feasible. (+info)
A surgical pathology system for gross specimen examination.
The concepts used in the storage of still digital images obtained during gross specimen examination of tissues and organs in surgical pathology using a digital camera are described. We address the technical aspects related with the implementation of a prototype tool to assist the pathologist during the sampling process as well the logic archive support to store the acquired images. We describe, also, the hypermedia concepts that allow the navigation and the efficient examination of the information contained in the stored images. The advantages, the technological and human limitations, and the effects of using images in the documentation of a case are also discussed. (+info)
Preservation of RNA for functional genomic studies: a multidisciplinary tumor bank protocol.
Few human tumors are collected such that RNA is preserved for molecular analysis. Completion of the Human Genome Project will soon result in the identification of more than 100,000 new genes. Consequently, increasing attention is being diverted to identifying the function of these newly described genes. Here we describe a multidisciplinary tumor bank procurement protocol that preserves both the integrity of tissue for pathologic diagnosis, and the RNA for molecular analyses. Freshly excised normal skin was obtained from five patients undergoing wound reconstruction following Mohs micrographic surgery for cutaneous neoplasia. Tissues treated for 24 hours with RNAlater were compared histologically and immunohistochemically to tissues not treated with RNAlater. Immunohistochemical stains studied included: CD45, CEA, cytokeratin AE1/3, vimentin, S-100, and CD34 on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue and CD45 staining of frozen tissue. Slides were blinded and evaluated independently by three pathologists. The histologic and immunohistochemical parameters of tissue stored in RNAlater were indistinguishable from tissue processed in standard fashion with the exception of S-100 stain which failed to identify melanocytes or Langerhan's cells within the epidermis in any of the RNAlater-treated tissues. Interestingly, nerve trunks within the dermis stained appropriately for S-100. Multiple non-cutaneous autopsy tissues were treated with RNAlater, formalin, liquid nitrogen (LN2), and TRIzol Reagent. The pathologists were unable to distinguish between tissues treated with RNAlater, formalin, or frozen in LN2, but could easily distinguish tissues treated with TRIzol Reagent because of extensive cytolysis. RNA was isolated from a portion of the tissue treated with RNAlater and used for molecular studies including Northern blotting and microarray analysis. RNA was adequate for Northern blot analysis and mRNA purified from RNAlater-treated tissues consistently provided excellent templates for reverse transcription and subsequent microarray analysis. We conclude that tissues treated with RNAlater before routine processing are indistinguishable histologically and immunohistochemically from tissues processed in routine fashion and that the RNA isolated from these tissues is of high quality and can be used for molecular studies. Based on this study, we developed a multidisciplinary tumor bank procurement protocol in which fresh tissue from resection specimens are routinely stored in RNAlater at the time of preliminary dissection. Thus, precious human tissue can be utilized for functional genomic studies without compromising the tissue's diagnostic and prognostic qualities. (+info)
Measuring and reporting errors in surgical pathology. Lessons from gynecologic cytology.
Substantial improvements in measuring and reporting errors in gynecologic cytology have been made during the last decade. Measuring and reporting errors in surgical pathology recently has gained renewed interest. However, review of current literature demonstrates mistakes in how these data are measured and reported. Error rates have been reported from review of consecutive material, biopsy material, and consultation material and range from 0.25% to 43%. Errors have been divided into anatomic regions and specimen types and separated according to their clinical significance. However, to be comparable, errors must be reported in reference to the incidence of disease and not to overall caseload. Blinding and reviewer error have been addressed only rarely, and the true incidence of errors is almost certainly higher than reported. "Gold standards" are not well defined. In addition, available data strongly suggest that the greatest source of error is with false-negative diagnoses, which are detected only rarely by review of consultation material. Most of these issues have been addressed in the gynecologic cytology literature. Errors in surgical pathology are more common than generally believed, and efforts should be made to define methods that allow appropriate interlaboratory comparisons. (+info)
Microwave technique in histopathology and its comparison with the conventional technique.
125 formalin fixed human tissues from different organs and 50 fresh animal tissues were taken. Each tissue piece was divided into two. Fresh animal tissues were fixed and processed in a domestic microwave oven and formalin fixed tissue were only processed in microwave oven. Simultaneous conventional processing was also carried out. Among the fresh tissues, 34 pieces were fixed in 10% formalin and 16 were stabilized in normal saline, with microwave irradiation. For histoprocessing graded ethanol (70% and absolute) for 150 tissues and graded isopropanol (70% and absolute) for 25 tissues were used for dehydration in microwave technique. Chloroform for 95 tissues, xylene for 15 tissues and isopropanol for 65 tissues were used as clearing agent in microwave technique. Liquid paraffin was impregnating agent in all 175 cases. The oven was operated at 50% power for 10 cases and 40% power for 165 cases. Recording of temperature could not be done. Regarding fixation with formalin 80% cases gave satisfactory result, while with normal saline, only 30% cases were satisfactory. Regarding dehydration with ethanol 80% were satisfactory and with isopropanol 60% were satisfactory. Regarding clearing--both chloroform and isopropyl alcohol gave satisfactory results in 80% cases but with, xylene tissues were fragmented and brittle. (+info)
A comparison of routine and rapid microwave tissue processing in a surgical pathology laboratory. Quality of histologic sections and advantages of microwave processing.
Rapid processing of histopathologic material is becoming increasingly desirable to fulfill the needs of clinicians treating acutely ill patients. Traditional techniques for rapid processing of paraffin-embedded tissues require 4 to 5 hours, delaying treatment for some critically ill patients and requiring additional shifts of technologists in the laboratory. Microwave processing further shortens this time, allowing even more rapid histopathologic diagnosis. Few data exist comparing quality of microwave-processed tissue with that processed by more traditional techniques. We randomly selected 158 paired specimens from 111 patients. One member of the pair was processed routinely overnight, while the other was processed by the rapid microwave technique. The slides then were compared for quality of histologic preparation in a blinded fashion by 2 pathologists. Eight routinely processed specimens were judged as suboptimal, while 6 microwave-processed specimens were judged as suboptimal and 1 was considered unsatisfactory for evaluation. In the remaining cases, the material obtained by the 2 techniques was considered of identical quality. Microwave processing considerably shortens the preparation time for permanent histologic sections without a demonstrable decrease in section quality or "readability." (+info)
Robotic telepathology for intraoperative remote diagnosis using a still-imaging-based system.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether a telemicroscopy system based on static imaging could provide a remote intraoperative frozen section service. Three pathologists evaluated 70 consecutive frozen section cases (for a total of 210 diagnoses) using a static telemicroscopy system (STeMiSy) and light microscopy (LM). STeMiSy uses a robotic microscope, enabling full remote control by consultant pathologists in a near real-time manner. Clinically important concordance between STeMiSy and LM was 98.6% (95.2% overall concordance), indicating very good agreement. The rates of deferred diagnoses given by STeMiSy and LM were comparable (11.0% and 9.5%, respectively). Compared with the consensus diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of STeMiSy and LM was 95.2% and 96.2%. The mean viewing time per slide was 3.6 minutes, and the overall time to make a diagnosis by STeMiSy was 6.2 minutes, conforming to intraoperative practice requirements. Our study demonstrates that a static imaging active telepathology system is comparable to dynamic telepathology systems and can provide a routine frozen section service. (+info)
Is microscopic assessment of macroscopically normal hysterectomy specimens necessary?
AIM: To determine whether microscopic examination of macroscopically normal hysterectomy specimens yields findings that could alter subsequent clinical management. METHODS: All pathology reports on hysterectomy specimens submitted to the department of histopathology at the Northern General Hospital from January 1997 to December 1998 were reviewed. Cases were included for further assessment if the hysterectomy specimen was regarded as macroscopically normal by a consultant pathologist and if the patient had no history of, or suspicion of, neoplastic disease. The subsequent microscopic findings from these cases were assessed to determine whether any lesions of clinical importance were identified. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fifty four specimens were reviewed, of which 139 were suitable for inclusion. Only one of the 139 cases harboured a microscopic abnormality that necessitated specific clinical follow up; this was a focus of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN 2). On follow up of that patient, no further neoplastic disease was identified. CONCLUSION: Microscopic assessment of macroscopically normal hysterectomy specimens does not contribute to patient management and is unnecessary in an era of manpower shortage and cost containment. (+info)