Detection of haptoglobin in the high-density lipoprotein and the very high-density lipoprotein fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver.
In addition to the lipoprotein-deficient d > 1.25 fraction, haptoglobin was detected in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver. It was not found in the chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein fractions. Washing of the HDL fraction did not decrease the haptoglobin concentration. Transferrin and immunoglobulin G were immunoblotted to examine the possibility of contamination of the lipoprotein fractions by the d > 1.25 fraction. The two serum proteins were detected only in the d > 1.25 fraction, not in any lipoprotein fractions. The distribution pattern of haptoglobin in the lipoprotein fractions was distinct from that of serum albumin. Concentrations of haptoglobin in the HDL fractions from pneumonic sera were largely proportional to those in whole sera. Cholesteryl ester concentrations were decreased in sera from calves with pneumonia, as in cows with fatty liver. A protein immunologically related to hemoglobin was also detected in particular in the VHDL fractions from sera of both groups. These results suggest that haptoglobin or a complex with the hemoglobin-like protein may have a role or roles related to the lipid metabolism. (+info)
A comparison of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.
A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. One thousand and eighty recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef calves suffering from UF were allocated to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular (i.m.) florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) at the time of allocation (Day 0) and again 48 h later, or tilmicosin, which was subcutaneous (s.c.) tilmicosin administered once at the rate of 10 mg/kg BW on day 0. Five hundred and forty-four animals were allocated to the florfenicol group and 536 animals were allocated to the tilmicosin group. The chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group than in the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, hemophilosis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the florfenicol and tilmicosin groups. Average daily gain (ADG) from arrival at the feedlot to the time of implanting and ADG from allocation to the time of implanting were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in arrival weight, allocation weight, implanting weight, or ADG from arrival to allocation between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was an advantage of $18.83 CDN per animal in the florfenicol group. The results of this study indicate that florfenicol is superior to tilmicosin for the treatment of UF because of lower chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates. However, interpretation of these observations must take into consideration the fact that these calves received meta-phylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot, which is a standard, cost-effective, management procedure utilized by feedlots in western Canada. (+info)
In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.
The in situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in normal and pneumonic lung tissues of Holstein calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was compared with that of age-matched non-BLAD Holstein calves by in situ hybridization. Twenty-four Holstein calves (both BLAD and non-BLAD) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups and inoculated intrabronchially with Pasteurella haemolytica or pyrogen-free saline. Lung tissues were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formalin at 2 or 4 hours postinoculation (PI). The expression and distribution of ICAM-1 mRNA in the different cell types of the lung tissue was detected by in situ hybridization with a 307-base-pair bovine ICAM-1 riboprobe. In lungs of both non-BLAD and BLAD saline-inoculated calves, ICAM-1 expression was present in epithelial cells but occurred in <30% of cells in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells was present in <30% of cells in pulmonary arteries and veins. The expression of ICAM-1 was significantly greater (>60% of cells) in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD calves inoculated with P. haemolytica. Bronchiolar epithelium had the highest intensity of mRNA expression and highest percentage of cells that were stained, whereas bronchial epithelium had the lowest intensity and percentage of cells stained. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs also expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD calves at 2 hours PI as compared with non-BLAD calves but not at 4 hours PI. The increased expression of ICAM-1 during acute P. haemolytica pneumonia in calves suggests that ICAM-1 is upregulated and may play a role in leukocyte infiltration. The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non-BLAD calves. (+info)
Reduced serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and cholesteryl ester concentration in calves experimentally inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1.
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme responsible for esterification of cholesterol in plasma, is reported to be implicated in the regulation of inflammation in laboratory animals. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible relevance of LCAT in the pathogenesis of calf pneumonia induced by inoculations of Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1 into the calf lung. Serum LCAT activity was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in calves inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica. The concentration of cholesteryl esters (CE), the product of the LCAT reaction, was also decreased in the inoculated group. Decreases in LCAT activity and the CE concentration were similarly observed in calves in which bovine herpes virus-1 was inoculated. In both bacteria- and virus-inoculated calves, CE concentrations in the high-density lipoprotein fractions were distinctly decreased, whereas those in the low-density lipoprotein fractions were practically unaltered. The acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A were detected in sera from the bacteria- and virus-inoculated calves; however, the two acute-phase proteins were also found in sera from the control calves. These results suggest that decreases in LCAT activity and the CE concentration are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia induced by inoculation of calves with Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1, and also that the change in the LCAT system is more intimately related to the occurrence of calf pneumonia than the induction of acute-phase proteins such as haptoglobin. (+info)
Decreased apolipoprotein C-III concentration in the high-density lipoprotein fraction from calves inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1.
Lipoprotein lipid and apoprotein concentrations are known to be altered during the acute-phase response. We have previously shown that the serum activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and concentration of cholesteryl esters, both constituents of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, are reduced in calves inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1, the two major pathogens for calf pneumonia. The concentration of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a low molecular mass protein component distributed mainly in the HDL fraction, was therefore examined in bacteria- and virus-inoculated calves. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that it was decreased by inoculations of Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1. The decrease was detected as early as 1 day after inoculation in both groups. A decreased serum apoC-III concentration was also observed by immunoblot analysis. It was detected in the HDL fractions from the bacteria- and virus-inoculated calves, and HDL apoC-III concentrations in the inoculated calves were decreased compared with controls. These results, coupled with the previous findings on LCAT activity and the cholesteryl ester concentration, indicate that a decreased HDL concentration is one of the early events occurring during the acute-phase response evoked by infections with Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine herpes virus-1. (+info)
Inactivation of Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin causes partial attenuation of virulence in a calf challenge model.
The leukotoxin of Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica is believed to play a significant role in pathogenesis, causing cell lysis and apoptosis that lead to the lung pathology characteristic of bovine shipping fever. Using a system for Cre-lox recombination, a nonpolar mutation within the lktC transacylase gene of the leukotoxin operon was created. The lktC locus was insertionally inactivated using a loxP-aph3-loxP cassette, and then the aph3 marker was excised from the chromosome by Cre recombinase expressed from a P. haemolytica plasmid. The resulting lktC strain (SH2099) secretes inactive leukotoxin and carries no known antibiotic resistance genes. Strain SH2099 was tested for virulence in a calf challenge model. We inoculated 3 x 10(8) or 3 x 10(9) CFU of wild-type or mutant bacteria into the lungs of healthy, colostrum-deprived calves via transthoracic injection. Animals were observed for clinical signs and for nasal colonization for 4 days, after which they were euthanized and necropsied. The lower inoculum (3 x 10(8) CFU) caused significantly fewer deaths and allowed lung pathology to be scored and compared, while the 3 x 10(9) CFU dose of either the wild-type or mutant was lethal to >/=50% of the calves. The estimated 50% lethal dose of SH2099 was four times higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lung lesion scores were reduced twofold in animals inoculated with the mutant, while clinical scores were nearly equivalent for both strains. The wild-type and mutant strains were equally capable of colonizing the upper respiratory tracts of the calves. In this study, the P. haemolytica lktC mutant was shown to be less virulent than the parent strain. (+info)
Influence of beta(2)-integrin adhesion molecule expression and pulmonary infection with Pasteurella haemolytica on cytokine gene expression in cattle.
beta(2)-Integrins are leukocyte adhesion molecules composed of alpha (CD11a, -b, -c, or -d) and beta (CD18) subunit heterodimers. Genetic CD18 deficiency results in impaired neutrophil egress into tissues that varies between conducting airways and alveoli of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether CD18 deficiency in cattle affects proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) expression in pulmonary tissue after respiratory infection with Pasteurella haemolytica. Cattle were infected with P. haemolytica via fiberoptic deposition of organisms into the posterior part of the right cranial lung lobe. Animals were euthanized at 2 or 4 h postinoculation (p.i.), and tissues were collected to assess PIC gene expression using antisense RNA probes specific for bovine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) along with the beta-actin (beta-Act) housekeeping gene. Expression of PIC was induced at 2 h p.i. in P. haemolytica-infected cattle and continued to 4 h p.i. At 2 h p.i., induction of gene expression and increase of cells that expressed PIC were observed both in CD18(+) and CD18(-) cattle after inoculation of P. haemolytica. The induction of gene expression with P. haemolytica inoculation was more prominent in CD18(-) cattle than in CD18(+) cattle by comparison to pyrogen-free saline (PFS)-inoculated control animals. At 4 h p.i., however, the induction of PIC, especially IL-1alpha, IL-6, and IFN-gamma, in the lungs of CD18(+) cattle inoculated with P. haemolytica was greater than that in lungs of the CD18(-) cattle. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha genes were not increased in P. haemolytica-inoculated CD18(-) cattle lungs compared to the PFS-inoculated control lungs at 4 h p.i. In PFS-inoculated lungs, we generally observed a higher percentage of cells and higher level of gene expression in the lungs of CD18(-) cattle than in the lungs of CD18(+) cattle, especially at 4 h p.i. The rate of neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of CD18(-) cattle at 2 h p.i. was significantly higher than that of CD18(+) cattle; at 4 h p.i., there was no difference between the two groups. These data suggest that beta(2)-integrins may contribute to the induction of expression of some PIC genes, as a consequence of P. haemolytica infection. (+info)
Coronavirus and Pasteurella infections in bovine shipping fever pneumonia and Evans' criteria for causation.
Respiratory tract infections with viruses and Pasteurella spp. were determined sequentially among 26 cattle that died during two severe epizootics of shipping fever pneumonia. Nasal swab and serum samples were collected prior to onset of the epizootics, during disease progression, and after death, when necropsies were performed and lung samples were collected. Eighteen normal control cattle also were sampled at the beginning of the epizootics as well as at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated from nasal secretions of 21 and 25 cattle before and after transport. Two and 17 cattle nasally shed Pasteurella spp. before and after transport, respectively. RBCV were isolated at titers of 1 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) PFU per g of lung tissue from 18 cattle that died within 7 days of the epizootics, but not from the lungs of the remaining cattle that died on days 9 to 36. Twenty-five of the 26 lung samples were positive for Pasteurella spp., and their CFU ranged between 4.0 x 10(5) and 2.3 x 10(9) per g. Acute and subacute exudative, necrotizing lobar pneumonia characterized the lung lesions of these cattle with a majority of pneumonic lung lobes exhibiting fibronecrotic and exudative changes typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, but other lung lobules had histological changes consisting of bronchiolitis and alveolitis typical of virus-induced changes. These cattle were immunologically naive to both infectious agents at the onset of the epizootics, but those that died after day 7 had rising antibody titers against RBCV and Pasteurella haemolytica. In contrast, the 18 clinically normal and RBCV isolation-negative cattle had high hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers to RBCV from the beginning, while their antibody responses to P. haemolytica antigens were delayed. Evans' criteria for causation were applied to our findings because of the multifactorial nature of shipping fever pneumonia. This analysis identified RBCV as the primary inciting cause in these two epizootics. These viruses were previously not recognized as a causative agent in this complex respiratory tract disease of cattle. (+info)