Enhanced adhesion of Pasteurella multocida to cultured turkey peripheral blood monocytes.
Capsular hyaluronic acid (HA) mediates adhesion of serogroup A strains of Pasteurella multocida to elicited turkey air sac macrophages (TASM). In contrast, freshly isolated turkey peripheral blood monocytes (TPBM) do not bind serogroup A strains. Following culture of TPBM for 6 days in chamber slides, adhesion of the bacteria to TPBM increased gradually. Incubation in chamber slides coated with entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL) attachment matrix or exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) further enhanced the adhesion of P. multocida to TPBM. Addition of HA, but not Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, to TPBM culture inhibited bacterial adherence similarly to the inhibition previously reported for TASM. Exposure of TPBM to monoclonal antibody directed against HA-binding cell surface proteoglycan (CD44) decreased binding of P. multocida. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. multocida adhesion to TPBM is mediated by capsular HA and can be increased by culture on ECL attachment matrix or PMA exposure. Additionally, the findings suggest that the capsular mucopolysaccharide of serogroup A strains of P. multocida recognizes an isoform of CD44 expressed on cultured TPBM. (+info)
Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis.
Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy. (+info)
Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs.
Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs. (+info)
Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.
In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. (+info)
Effects of four antigenic fractions of Pasteurella multocida serotype A on phagocytosis of chicken peripheral blood leukocytes.
The effects of four antigenic fractions of Pasteurella multocida serotype A isolated from a duck in the Philippines on the phagocytic activity of chicken peripheral blood leukocytes were studied by a flow cytometer. These fractions were the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPS), crude capsular antigen (CCA), ribosomal fraction (RS) and outer cell layer (OCL). Among these four antigens, only CCA but not LPS RS and OCL, significantly increased the phagocytic activities of mononuclear cells (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). This result indicates that CCA has an immunological property enhancing the phagocytic activities of MNC and PMN. (+info)
Genomic DNA restriction site heterogeneity in bovine Pasteurella multocida serogroup A isolates detected with an rRNA probe.
A total of 81 Pasteurella multocida isolates from healthy and diseased dairy and beef cattle originating from various geographical locations was examined by rRNA gene restriction site polymorphism analysis (ribotyping), restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell (WCP) and outer-membrane (OMP) proteins, and capsule and somatic serotyping. Bacterial strains were isolated from nose, lung and in one case testicle, of Holstein and cross-bred beef cattle. The isolates represented for the most part serogroup A3 (88%). Ribotyping was performed on DNA digested with HaeII, electrophoresed and then hybridised with 32P-labelled 16S-23S rRNA from Escherichia coli. Six ribotypes (R1-R6) and 10 REA types were found among the 81 isolates with similar discrimination index (DI) of c. 0.60. Protein profiles revealed reproducibility and high levels of polymorphisms among lung isolates. Isolates were compared according to their geographical habitat, their isolation from dairy or from beef cattle and from nasal cavities or lungs. No correlation was apparent between geographical locations and ribotypes. Overall, isolates obtained from dairy cattle were predominantly R1, whereas those obtained from beef cattle were equally distributed between R1 and R2. R1 was more representative of lung isolates. For some strains, particularly the single isolate ribotypes, good correlation was achieved between WCP analysis, REA types and ribotypes. For others, REA to some extent and WCP profiles were able to discriminate among isolates within ribotypes. The data suggest that a combination of ribotyping, REA and WCP analysis is useful for investigating the epidemiology of bovine P. multocida serogroup A. (+info)
Effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex and crude capsular antigens of Pasteurella multocida serotype A on antibody responses and delayed type hypersensitivity responses in the chicken.
The effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPS) and crude capsular antigen (CCA) prepared from Pasteurella multocida serotype A isolated from a duck in the Philippines, on antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the chickens were studied. Chickens injected subcutaneously with LPS and CCA at 1 and 2 weeks of age and immunized intravenously with the mixed antigens of SRBC and BA, at 3 and 4 weeks of age showed significantly increased antibody responses against both SRBC and BA, when evaluated at 7 days after each immunization. In addition, these chickens sensitized intramuscularly with the emulsion of BSA in complete Freund's adjuvant at 5 weeks of age, and then injected into the wattle with BSA at 7 weeks of age also showed significantly increased DTH responses against BSA, when evaluated at 24 and 48 hr after challenge. These results indicate that LPS and CCA of P. multocida serotype A have a property enhancing humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (+info)
Value of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR for study of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from mouths of dogs.
Fifty-six Pasteurella multocida strains (40 P. multocida subsp. septica and 16 P. multocida subsp. multocida strains) isolated from the mouths of 56 dogs among the 134 living in a French canine military training center (132e Groupe Cynophile de l'Armee de Terre, Suippes, France) were studied by use of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Both techniques showed genomic heterogeneity of the strains studied. However, RFLP was more discriminatory than ERIC-PCR for differentiating P. multocida strains. All but three pairs of strains were discriminated by RFLP, suggesting a limited circulation of strains between these dogs living in proximity. Although ERIC-PCR is easier and faster to perform, it cannot be recommended for epidemiological studies of P. multocida strains. (+info)