(1/312) Parotid neoplasms: a report of 250 cases and review of the literature.
A 25-year experience with parotid tumors was reviewed. From a total of 250 neoplasms, 173 were histologically benign and 77 were malignant. Benign mixed tumors accounted for 59% of all lesions. Clinical parameters used to diagnose parotid neoplasms were found to be unreliable in determining whether a given tumor was benign or malignant. The mean age for malignant lesions was 10 years greater than for benign lesions. The phenomenon of malignant transformation of a benign tumor was considered in four patients. Complete surgical excision is the safest and preferred method for diagnosis. Preoperative needle or incisional biopsy are associated with a high degree of local recurrence. The appropriate management of any parotid tumor is predicated on special histological type. Local excision or enucleation no longer have a place in the surgical management of benign parotid tumors. Postoperative tumor recurrence and morbidity are directly related to awareness of surgical anatomy and pursuit of correct surgical techniques for adequate resection. The five-year recurrence rate for 102 benign mixed tumors was 6%. Recurrence in malignant tumors varied with specific histological types but was generally high. Five-year survival for all malignant parotid tumors was 48%. (+info)
(2/312) Clinico-pathological and treatment-related factors influencing survival in parotid cancer.
One hundred and three patients with primary parotid cancer treated surgically at the Christie Hospital, Manchester (1952-1992), were analysed to assess the influence on survival of prognostic and treatment-related factors. Thirty-seven patients were treated by surgery alone (SG), 66 received post-operative radiation (SG+RT). Median follow-up was 12 years, minimum 5 years. The 10-year disease-specific survival rates for stage I, II and III/IV were 96%, 61% and 17% respectively (P < 0.0001). The various histological types segregated into three survival patterns: low-, intermediate-and high-grade with 10-year survival rates of 93%, 41% and 50% respectively (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the factors influencing risk of cancer death in order of importance were: tumour size > 4 cm (P < 0.001), presence of nodes (P = 0.001), histology of adenoid cystic carcinoma (P = 0.01), high-tumour grade (P = 0.02) and perineural involvement (P = 0.01). Neither the extent of surgery nor the operator influenced outcome. Overall, adjuvant RT significantly reduced locoregional recurrence (SG+RT 15% vs SG 43%; P = 0.002) but not survival, although on subanalysis, there was a trend to improved survival with large cancers and high-grade tumours. Long-term survival is determined primarily by tumour characteristics, namely clinical stage and grade. Post-operative RT contributes significantly to locoregional control and probably confers some survival advantage in high-risk patients. (+info)
(3/312) Simultaneous phenotypically distinct but clonally identical mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and follicular lymphoma in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome.
A 44-year-old woman with a 12-year history of Sjogren's syndrome (SS) developed a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the parotid gland. Two years later, she presented with generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly and a follicular lymphoma was diagnosed. To investigate the relationship of the two histologically distinct lymphomas, we re-examined their histology and immunophenotype and studied the lymphomatous tissue from the parotid, cervical lymph node, and spleen using molecular genetic methods. Histologic and immunophenotypic studies confirmed the previous diagnoses and also identified a previously unnoticed focus of follicular lymphoma in the second parotid gland biopsy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the rearranged Ig heavy-chain gene showed the same sized dominant product in the MALT lymphoma and the follicular lymphoma. Similarly, PCR analysis of the t(14:18) translocation yielded an identical sized band from both MALT and follicular lymphoma. Cloning and sequencing of the Ig PCR products showed an identical CDR3 sequence from each lesion, indicating a common clonal lineage. The follicular lymphoma of the parotid gland lymph node and the follicular lymphoma of the spleen showed an identical mutation signature to that of the salivary gland MALT lymphoma. We propose that follicular lymphoma in the parotid gland lymph node may have resulted from colonization of lymphoid follicles by MALT lymphoma cells, following which the tumor cells were induced to express a follicular lymphoma phenotype, due to Bcl-2 overexpression caused by t(14;18), leading to a change in clinical behavior resulting in rapid widespread dissemination of disease. These observations suggest that the distinct phenotypes of low-grade B-cell lymphomas may be the consequence of interplay between genetic and local microenvironmental factors. (+info)
(4/312) Perioperative frozen section examination in parotid gland tumors.
CONTEXT: The minimal recommended surgical approach to parotid tumors is partial parotidectomy with resection of the superficial lobe of the gland. Histologic diagnosis prior to surgery is not possible, as incisional biopsies are contraindicated due to the possibility of facial nerve injury or incomplete tumor resection. Thus, the biopsies tend to be perioperative. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of frozen section examination with the definitive pathological diagnosis. DESIGN: Accuracy study by retrospective analysis. SETTING: Head and Neck Surgery Service of Heliopolis Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: 153 cases of parotid gland tumors treated between 1977 and 1994. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Frozen section and pathological diagnosis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sensibility and specificity of the frozen section examination. RESULTS: Frozen section study diagnosed 19 (12.4%) malignant and 127 (83.7%) benign tumors. Sensitivity of the frozen sections for malignancy was 61.5% (95% CI 54 to 69%) and specificity was 98% (95% CI 94 to 100%), and this result is comparable to the literature. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that frozen section examination for salivary gland tumors is not sufficient on its own for deciding on the best management. Their interpretation must be correlated with clinical and intraoperative findings, in association with the surgeon's experience. (+info)
(5/312) Follicle center lymphoma and Warthin tumor involving the same anatomic site. Report of two cases and review of the literature.
We report 2 cases of follicle center non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Warthin tumor involving the same site. Case 1 is a 68-year-old woman with Warthin tumor and grade 1 follicular NHL involving a periparotid lymph node. She had localized NHL and was treated with radiation therapy; dissemination developed 54 months later. Case 2 is a 55-year-old man with a 17-year history of a parotid mass with gradual enlargement during the last 5 years. Surgical excision revealed Warthin tumor and grade 1 follicular NHL involving the right parotid gland and surrounding lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical studies supported the diagnosis of NHL in both cases; the neoplasms were positive for CD20 and BCL-2 and negative for CD3. Polymerase chain reaction analysis done on paraffinembedded tissue of case 1 revealed monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and bcl-2/JH fusion DNA sequences diagnostic of the t(14;18)(q32;q21). The small size of the Warthin tumor in case 1, clearly arising in lymph node, supports the hypothesis that Warthin tumor arises from heterotopic salivary gland ducts within lymph nodes. The localized NHL in both patients suggests that the NHL initially arose in the lymph node involved by Warthin tumor, and, thus, the Warthin tumor may have provided a source of long-term antigenic stimulation from which a monoclonal B-cell population subsequently arose. (+info)
(6/312) Clinically benign parotid tumours: local dissection as an alternative to superficial parotidectomy in selected cases.
In a personal series of 162 tumours, 101 were pleomorphic adenomas 28 of which were removed by elective local extra capsular dissection and 73 by a conventional nerve dissection. There were no recurrences in either group after a mean follow-up 10.3 years, range 3-21 years for local dissection and 8.3 years, range 3-22 years for nerve dissection. Frey's syndrome did not occur after local dissection but was present in 25% of patients after a nerve dissection. Of the 162 parotid lumps, 17 proved to be a carcinoma but only one was deemed suitable for a local removal, a low grade muco epidermoid carcinoma of the accessory lobe and no recurrence has occurred after 8 years. In benign disease, local dissection gives similar results to conventional nerve dissection with less morbidity and confirms that tumour recurrence cannot be ascribed to any properties of the tumour but lies in the hands of the surgeon and depends on the care with which the tumour is removed. (+info)
(7/312) The place of magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic examinations of the parotid gland in the diagnosis and follow-up of primary Sjogren's syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the place of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonographic (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Parotid MRI and US examinations were carried out on 44 primary SS patients and 52 controls of similar age. RESULTS: The most important structural changes in SS were different degrees of parenchymal inhomogeneity, which could be detected by both methods, and were found more frequently in the SS patients than in the controls (MRI: 95.4 vs 17. 3%; US: 88.6 vs 7.7%; P<0.001). There was good agreement between the MRI and US findings both in the SS cases (93.2%) and in the controls (86.5%). In one SS patient who developed parotid lymphoma, the US examination showed a hypoechoic 'cobblestones'-like inhomogeneous internal pattern which was coupled with an almost homogeneous MRI pattern. CONCLUSIONS: MRI appears unnecessary as a routine method in the diagnosis of SS; US examination is suitable both for the diagnosis and follow-up of SS. The above combination of the seemingly contradictory US and MRI findings is highly characteristic of lymphoma which has developed in the course of the disease. (+info)
(8/312) Hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland in infants: sonography and correlative MR imaging.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemangioendothelioma is the most common parotid gland tumor of childhood, and is diagnosed on clinical grounds, supported by imaging findings. Previous work has suggested that MR is the best imaging technique for assessment of parotid hemangioendothelioma. Demonstration of a reliable sonographic appearance would reduce the need for MR imaging in infants with this lesion. METHODS: We performed high-frequency sonography (including color Doppler and power Doppler imaging) in three patients, each with a diagnosis of parotid hemangioendothelioma confirmed by clinical follow-up. Two patients were also examined with MR imaging and labeled red cell scintigraphy. RESULTS: All sonographic studies showed a homogeneous mass enlarging and replacing most or all of the visualized parotid gland, with a lobular internal structure, fine echogenic internal septations, and a mildly lobulated contour. Color Doppler and power Doppler imaging showed extremely high vascularity within the mass. Correlative MR images in two infants showed a well-defined lesion with uniform intense contrast enhancement. Labeled red cell scintigraphy showed a well-defined area of intense activity. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a typical clinical history, sonography and clinical follow-up alone may prove to be sufficient for safe management of parotid hemangioendothelioma. MR imaging or labeled red cell scintigraphy may only be required if the sonographic features are atypical. These findings require confirmation in a larger series of patients. (+info)