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(1/43) Aromatic amino acids are utilized and protein synthesis is stimulated during amino acid infusion in the ovine fetus.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ovine fetus is capable of increased disposal of an amino acid load; if so, would it respond by increased protein synthesis, amino acid catabolism or both? A further purpose of the study was to determine whether the pathways of aromatic amino acid catabolism are functional in the fetus. Late gestation ovine fetuses of well-nourished ewes received an infusion of Aminosyn PF alone (APF), and Aminosyn PF + glycyl-L-tyrosine (APF+GT) at rates estimated to double the intake of these amino acids. The initial study, using APF, was performed at 126 +/- 1.4 d; the APF+GT study was performed at 132 +/- 1.7 d (term = 150 d). Phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics were determined using both stable and radioactive isotopes. Plasma concentrations of most amino acids, but not tyrosine, increased during both studies; tyrosine concentration increased only during the APF+GT study. Phenylalanine rate of appearance and phenylalanine hydroxylation increased during both studies. Tyrosine rate of appearance increased only during the APF+GT study; tyrosine oxidation did not increase during either study. Fetal protein synthesis increased significantly during both studies, producing a significant increase in fetal protein accretion. Fetal proteolysis was unchanged in response to either amino acid infusion. These results indicate that the fetus responds to an acute increase in amino acid supply primarily by increasing protein synthesis and accretion, with a smaller but significant increase in amino acid catabolism also. Both phenylalanine hydroxylation and tyrosine oxidation are active in the fetus, and the fetus is able to increase phenylalanine hydroxylation rapidly in response to increased supply.  (+info)

(2/43) IGF-I treatment in adults with type 1 diabetes: effects on glucose and protein metabolism in the fasting state and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic amino acid clamp.

Type 1 diabetes is associated with abnormalities of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis. Such abnormalities include decreased circulating levels of IGF-I. We studied the effects of IGF-I therapy (40 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) on protein and glucose metabolism in adults with type 1 diabetes in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 12 subjects participated, and each subject was studied at baseline and after 7 days of treatment, both in the fasting state and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic amino acid clamp. Protein and glucose metabolism were assessed using infusions of [1-13C]leucine and [6-6-2H2]glucose. IGF-I administration resulted in a 51% rise in circulating IGF-I levels (P < 0.005) and a 56% decrease in the mean overnight GH concentration (P < 0.05). After IGF-I treatment, a decrease in the overnight insulin requirement (0.26+/-0.07 vs. 0.17+/-0.06 U/kg, P < 0.05) and an increase in the glucose infusion requirement were observed during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (approximately 67%, P < 0.05). Basal glucose kinetics were unchanged, but an increase in insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal was observed after IGF-I therapy (37+/-6 vs. 52+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). IGF-I administration increased the basal metabolic clearance rate for leucine (approximately 28%, P < 0.05) and resulted in a net increase in leucine balance, both in the basal state and during the hyperinsulinemic amino acid clamp (-0.17+/-0.03 vs. -0.10+/-0.02, P < 0.01, and 0.25+/-0.08 vs. 0.40+/-0.06, P < 0.05, respectively). No changes in these variables were recorded in the subjects after administration of placebo. These findings demonstrated that IGF-I replacement resulted in significant alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in the basal and insulin-stimulated states. These effects were associated with increased insulin sensitivity, and they underline the major role of IGF-I in protein and glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

(3/43) Effect of hyperinsulinemia on amino acid utilization in the ovine fetus.

We studied the effect of an acute 4-h period of hyperinsulinemia (H) on net utilization rates (AAUR(net)) of 21 amino acids (AA) in 17 studies performed in 13 late-gestation fetal sheep by use of a novel fetal hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp. During H [84 +/- 12 (SE) microU/ml H, 15 +/- 2 microU/ml control (C), P < 0. 00001], euglycemia was maintained by glucose clamp (19 +/- 0.05 micromol/ml H, 1.19 +/- 0.04 micromol/ml C), and euaminoacidemia (mean 4.1 +/- 3.3% increase for all amino acid concentrations [AA], nonsignificantly different from zero) was maintained with a mixed amino acid solution adjusted to keep lysine concentration constant and other [AA] near C values. H produced a 63.7% increase in AAUR(net) (3.29 +/- 0.66 micromol. min(-1). kg(-1) H, 2.01 +/- 0.55 micromol. min(-1). kg(-1) C, P < 0.001), accounting for a 60.1% increase in fetal nitrogen uptake rate (2,064 +/- 108 mg. day(-1). kg(-1) H, 1,289 +/- 73 mg. day(-1). kg(-1) C, P < 0.001). Mean AA clearance rate (AAUR(net)/[AA]) increased by 64.5 +/- 18.9% (P < 0. 001). Thus acute physiological H increases net amino acid and nitrogen utilization rates in the ovine fetus independent of plasma glucose and [AA].  (+info)

(4/43) Renal functional reserve is impaired in patients with systemic sclerosis without clinical signs of kidney involvement.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional response of the kidney to an amino acid challenge (the so called renal functional reserve (RFR)) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with no clinical sign of renal involvement. METHODS: Before and after an intravenous amino acid load (Freamine III Baxter, 8.5% solution, 4.16 ml/min for two hours), glomerular filtration rate (GFR, as creatinine clearance), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, as para-aminohyppurate clearance), and calculated total renal vascular resistance (TRVR) were measured in 21 patients with SSc with apparently normal renal function and 10 normal controls. RESULTS: In basal conditions, patients had lower ERPF (403.5 (SD 43.8) v 496.4 (SD 71.3) ml/min, p<0.0002) and higher TRVR (10 822 (SD 2044) v 8874 (SD 1639) dyne/sxcm(-5), p<0.014) than controls. The RFR, evaluated as the percentage increase of GFR after the amino acid load, was significantly reduced in patients with SSc (SSc +1.9 (SD18.6)%, controls +34.8 (SD 13.9)%; p<0.0002). However, the response of patients was not uniform. Multiple regression analysis showed that the RFR was inversely dependent on the patients' mean arterial pressure at admission and basal GFR (R(2)=65%, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with SSc cannot increase renal filtration under the challenge of a protein overload. This defective renal response to the amino acid load test sustains the concept of the prevalence of vasoconstrictor over vasodilating factors in the kidney of these patients.  (+info)

(5/43) Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study.

To test the hypothesis that muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the concentration of extracellular amino acids, we investigated the dose-response relationship between the rate of human MPS and the concentrations of blood and intramuscular amino acids. We increased blood mixed amino acid concentrations by up to 240 % above basal levels by infusion of mixed amino acids (Aminosyn 15, 44-261 mg kg-1 h-1) in 21 healthy subjects, (11 men 10 women, aged 29 +/- 2 years) and measured the rate of incorporation of D5-phenylalanine or D3-leucine into muscle protein and blood and intramuscular amino acid concentrations. The relationship between the fold increase in MPS and blood essential amino acid concentration ([EAA], mM) was hyperbolic and fitted the equation MPS = (2.68 x [EAA])/(1.51 + [EAA]) (P < 0.01). The pattern of stimulation of myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic and mitochondrial protein was similar. There was no clear relationship between the rate of MPS and the concentration of intramuscular EAAs; indeed, when MPS was increasing most rapidly, the concentration of intramuscular EAAs was below basal levels. We conclude that the rates of synthesis of all classes of muscle proteins are acutely regulated by the blood [EAA] over their normal diurnal range, but become saturated at high concentrations. We propose that the stimulation of protein synthesis depends on the sensing of the concentration of extracellular, rather than intramuscular EAAs.  (+info)

(6/43) Insulin is protein-anabolic in chronic renal failure patients.

To examine the protein anabolic actions of insulin in chronic renal failure, the authors measured four sets of whole body leucine fluxes during insulin alone and insulin with amino acid infusion in nine uremic patients before hemodialysis (B-HD). Seven were restudied 8 wk after initiation of maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Six normal subjects served as control (N). All values ( micro mol/kg/h, mean +/- SEM) are presented in the sequence of B-HD, HD, and N, and only P < 0.05 are listed. During Flux 1 (baseline), D (leucine release from body protein degradation) were 114 +/- 7, 126 +/- 4, and 116 +/- 6, respectively. C (leucine oxidation rates) were 18 +/- 2, 17 +/- 2, and 21 +/- 3, respectively. S (leucine disappearance into body protein [index of protein synthesis]) were 96 +/- 6, 107 +/- 4, and 94 +/- 4, respectively, and balances (net leucine flux into protein [values were negative during fasting]) were -18 +/- 2, -17 +/- 2, and -21 +/- 3, respectively. During Flux 2 (low-dose insulin infusion), D were 89 +/- 3, 98 +/- 6, and 94 +/- 5, respectively; C were 12 +/- 1, 11 +/- 2, and 18 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.02); S were 77 +/- 4, 87 +/- 5, and 76 +/- 5, respectively, and balances were -12 +/- 1, -11 +/- 2, and -18 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.02). During Flux 3 (high-dose insulin infusion): D were 77 +/- 3, 82 +/- 7, and 84 +/- 5, respectively; C were 9 +/- 1, 8 +/- 1, and 14 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.005); S were 68 +/- 4, 74 +/- 6, and 70 +/- 5, respectively, and balances were -9 +/- 1, -8 +/- 1, and -14 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.005). In Flux 4 (insulin infused with amino acids): D were 73 +/- 3, 107 +/- 18, and 85 +/- 7, respectively; C were 35 +/- 4, 29 +/- 5, and 39 +/- 3, respectively; S were 105 +/- 5, 145 +/- 15, and 113 +/- 6, respectively (P = 0.02), and balances were 32 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5, and 27 +/- 3, respectively. These data show that B-HD and HD patients were as sensitive as normal subjects to the protein anabolic actions of insulin. Insulin alone reduced proteolysis and leucine oxidation, and insulin given with amino acids increased net protein synthesis.  (+info)

(7/43) Increased incidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis with aminosyn PF compared to trophamine.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) between two pediatric parenteral amino-acid formulations, Aminosyn PF (APF) and Trophamine (TA). STUDY DESIGN: SETTING: Tertiary newborn intensive-care nursery. SUBJECTS: A total of 661 neonates who received either TA or APF. DESIGN: Retrospective. The incidence of PNAC was determined in three groups: Group I (TA, 8/19/97 to 8/19/98, n=335), Group II (APF, 8/20/98 to 1/28/99, n=157), and Group III (TA, 1/29/99 to 8/1/99, n=169). RESULTS: No PNAC developed in any infant receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for < 3 weeks. Of 141 patients given PN for > or =21 days, 24 were diagnosed with PNAC: Group I (TA, 10/78, 12.8%), Group II (APF, 9/27, 33.3%), and Group III (TA, 5/36, 13.9%). The incidence of PNAC was significantly higher in infants who received APF (p=0.043). Using logistic regression, only birth weight, duration of PN, and use of APF were significant risk factors for the development of PNAC. Despite an earlier initiation of enteral feedings, APF recipients developed PNAC sooner, had higher peak direct bilirubin levels, and remained jaundiced longer. CONCLUSIONS: The use of APF was temporally associated with a greater than two-fold increase in the incidence of PNAC compared to periods of exclusive TA use. In the absence of significant differences in parenteral nutrient or energy intake in neonates who developed PNAC, we speculate that possible differences between the amino-acid compositions of TA and APF may be responsible for the observed differences in the incidence of PNAC.  (+info)

(8/43) Fractional synthesis rates of DNA and protein in rabbit skin are not correlated.

We developed a method for measurement of skin DNA synthesis, reflecting cell division, in conscious rabbits by infusing D-[U-(13)C(6)]glucose and L-[(15)N]glycine. Cutaneous protein synthesis was simultaneously measured by infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Rabbits were fitted with jugular venous and carotid arterial catheters, and were studied during the infusion of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol). The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of DNA from the de novo nucleotide synthesis pathway, a reflection of total cell division, was 3.26 +/- 0.59%/d in whole skin and 3.08 +/- 1.86%/d in dermis (P = 0.38). The de novo base synthesis pathway accounted for 76 and 60% of the total DNA FSR in whole skin and dermis, respectively; the contribution from the base salvage pathway was 24% in whole skin and 40% in dermis. The FSR of protein in whole skin was 5.35 +/- 4.42%/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that in dermis (2.91 +/- 2.52%/d). The FSRs of DNA and protein were not correlated (P = 0.33), indicating that cell division and protein synthesis are likely regulated by different mechanisms. This new approach enables investigations of metabolic disorders of skin diseases and regulation of skin wound healing by distinguishing the 2 principal components of skin metabolism, which are cell division and protein synthesis.  (+info)