Endotoxin-induced changes in IGF-I differ in rats provided enteral vs. parenteral nutrition.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether acute changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system induced by mild surgical trauma/fasting or endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] are differentially modulated by total enteral nutrition (TEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats had vascular catheters and a gastrostomy tube surgically placed and were fasted overnight. The next morning animals randomly received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous (250 kcal. kg-1. day-1, 1.6 g N. kg-1. day-1) infusion of either TEN or TPN for 48 h. Then rats were injected intravenously with Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg) while nutritional support was continued. Time-matched control animals were injected with saline. After mild surgical trauma and an 18-h fast, TEN was more effective at increasing plasma IGF-I levels than TPN. Subsequent injection of LPS decreased IGF-I in blood, liver, and muscle in both TEN- and TPN-fed rats compared with saline-injected control animals. However, this decrease was approximately 30% greater in rats fed TPN compared with those fed TEN. LPS-induced downregulation of IGF-I mRNA expression in liver and muscle was also more prominent in TPN-fed rats. The LPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater (2- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in TPN-fed rats, and these changes were consistent with the greater reduction in IGF-I seen in these animals. In similarly treated rats allowed to survive for 24 h after LPS injection, the LPS-induced increase in the urinary 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was smaller in TEN-fed rats. In summary, LPS reduced systemic levels of IGF-I as well as IGF-I protein and mRNA in critical target organs. Enteral feeding greatly attenuated this response. Maintenance of higher IGF-I levels in TEN-fed rats was associated with a reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels and lower rates of myofibrillar degradation. (+info
Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions.
BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates. (+info
Total parenteral nutrition in the management of acute renal failure.
Malnutrition is frequently present in patients with acute renal failure and may affect morbidity and mortality in this condition. When adequate nourishment cannot be given through the gastrointestinal tract, total parental nutrition with amino acids and hypertonic glucose may have beneficial results. Total parenteral nutrition has been reported to stabilize or reduce serum urea nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus levels, improve wound healing, enhance survival from acute renal failure, and possibly increase the rate of recovery of renal function. The optimal composition of the total parenteral nutrition infusate is unknown. Preliminary results of a double-blind study are reported in which one man received hypertonic glucose alone, two received glucose with essential amino acids (21 g/day), and three received glucose with essential (21 g/day) and nonessential (21 g/day) amino acids. All infusates were isocaloric. No differences were observed in serum urea nitrogen levels, serum urea nitrogen/creatinine ratios or urea appearance rates. Nitrogen balance was negative in all patients. The ratio of essential amino acids/nonessential amino acids were higher and the tyrosine/phenylalanine ratios were lower in plasma in the two patients receiving glucose with essential amino acids. No patient survived the hospitalization. In view of the markedly negative nitrogen balance frequently observed in these and earlier studies, the use of a different composition or quantity of amino acids, a higher energy intake, and anabolic hormones deserve further investigation. (+info
Use of semi-quantitative and quantitative culture methods and typing for studying the epidemiology of central venous catheter-related infections in neonates on parenteral nutrition.
To study the epidemiology - especially the impact of contaminated stopcocks - on central venous catheter (CVC) infection and catheter-related sepsis (CRS), semi-quantitative (SQ) and quantitative (Q) culture methods and typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were employed in 49 neonates with clinical signs of sepsis while receiving parenteral nutrition in the paediatric intensive care unit. The patients were divided into two groups according to stopcock contamination: group A consisted of 18 patients (36%) with contaminated stopcocks and group B consisted of 31 patients (64%) with sterile stopcocks. Five specimens were obtained from each patient, in addition to that from the stopcock: a swab taken from the skin surrounding the catheter puncture site; the CVC tip; the intradermal segment (IDC); and samples of parenteral fluid and blood. A total of 294 specimens (392 sites) was cultured and micro-organisms were identified. All CNS isolated were typed by biotyping, antibiogram, plasmid analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the discriminatory power of the typing methods was compared. The CVC tips were infected in 25 patients (51%); 15 (83%) in group A and 10 (32%) in group B. Sepsis was detected in 24 neonates (49%), 13 in group A and 11 in group B. This was catheter-related in 15 patients (63%), 12 in group A and 3 in group B. CNS were recovered from 13 (52%) of 25 infected CVCs, nine in group A and four in group B. Sixty-five CNS isolates were recovered from these patients and belonged to 14 biotypes, 22 antibiograms, 22 plasmid profiles and 26 PFGE types. Typing showed that in six of nine patients in group A, CNS of the same type were recovered from the catheter tip and the stopcock, in one patient the catheter tip and skin isolates were the same and in two others the catheter tip isolates were different from stopcock and skin isolates. In all four patients in group B, different CNS types were recovered from CVC tips and skin. Bacteraemia was caused by CNS in 14 patients (58%), six in group A and eight in group B. Typing confirmed that nine cases (six in group A and three in group B) were catheter-related but five were not. SQ and Q culture methods and typing, especially by PFGE, allowed the study to determine that bacteria from contaminated stopcocks were frequently the source of CVC infection and CRS. (+info
Route and type of nutrition influence IgA-mediating intestinal cytokines.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the levels of a Th1 IgA-inhibiting cytokine (interferon gamma) and the Th2 IgA-stimulating cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) within the intestine of animals manipulated with enteral or parenteral nutrition, and to correlate these cytokine alterations with intestinal IgA levels. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Enteral feeding significantly reduces the incidence of pneumonia in critically injured patients compared with intravenous total parenteral nutrition (IV TPN) or no nutritional support. Experimentally, complex diets prevent impairments in mucosal immunity induced by IV TPN. These impairments include decreases in intestinal and respiratory tract IgA levels, impaired IgA-mediated antiviral defenses, and increases in the mortality rate against established immunity to Pseudomonas pneumonia. Intragastric (IG) TPN maintains antiviral defenses but only partially preserves protection against Pseudomonas pneumonia. Because IgA levels depend on interactions between Th1 IgA-inhibiting and Th2 IgA-stimulating cytokines, the authors postulated differences in gut cytokine balance in enterally and parenterally fed mice. METHODS: Sixty-one mice were randomized to receive chow, IV TPN, IG TPN, or an isocaloric, complex enteral diet. After 5 days of feeding, animals were killed and supernatants from samples of intestine were harvested, homogenized, and assayed for Th1 and Th2 cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The Th2 cytokines, IL-5 and IL-6, and the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, remained unchanged by diet. IL-4 levels decreased significantly in both IV and IG TPN groups versus the chow or complex enteral diet groups, whereas IL-10 decreased only in IV TPN mice. Decreases in Th2 cytokines correlated with intestinal IgA levels. CONCLUSION: Chow and complex enteral diets maintain a normal balance between IgA-stimulating and IgA-inhibiting cytokines while preserving normal antibacterial and antiviral immunity. The IgA-stimulating cytokine IL-4 drops significantly in mice receiving IG and IV TPN in association with reduced IgA levels, whereas IL-10 decreases significantly only in mice receiving IV TPN. These data are consistent with severely impaired mucosal immunity with IV TPN and partial impairment with IG TPN and provide a cytokine-mediated explanation for reduction in diet-induced mucosal immunity. (+info
Randomised controlled trial of trophic feeding and gut motility.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of trophic feeding on gastric emptying and whole gut transit time in sick preterm infants. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, prospective study of 70 infants weighing less than 1750 g at birth, who were receiving ventilatory support, was performed. Group TF (33 infants) received trophic feeding from day 3 (0.5 ml/h if birthweight less than 1 kg, 1 ml/h if greater or equal to 1 kg) in addition to parenteral nutrition until ventilatory support finished. Group C (37 infants) received parenteral nutrition alone until ventilatory support finished. Expressed breast milk or a preterm formula were given according to maternal preference. Gastric emptying was assessed within 24 hours of nutritive milk feeding equal to 90 ml/kg/day, using ultrasound scans to measure the reduction in the gastric antral cross sectional area after a feed. Whole gut motility was assessed at both 3 and 6 weeks of age by measuring the whole gut transit time (WGTT) of the marker carmine red. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between groups in their gastric half emptying time, median difference (95% confidence interval) 2.6 (-5.9, 13.9) minutes. The WGTT was significantly faster (p < 0.05) in group TF at both 3 and 6 weeks; median difference -13 (-47, -0.1) and -12.5 (-44, -0.5) hours, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Trophic feeding enhances whole gut motility but not gastric emptying. This effect could subsequently improve milk tolerance in sick preterm infants. (+info
Parenteral nutrition following intensive cytotoxic therapy: an exploratory study on the need for parenteral nutrition after various treatment approaches for haematological malignancies.
Patients receiving intensive cytotoxic therapy are traditionally supported with parenteral nutrition (PN), although it is unclear whether all patients benefit from PN. This study aimed to identify regimen-associated differences in PN requirements, to reveal discrepancies between the number of PN indications and the frequency with which PN was actually given, and to describe characteristics of patients who met nutritional goals without PN. PN indications were defined as: (1) severe malnutrition at admission; (2) a prolonged period (7-10 days) of minimal oral intake; or (3) clinical weight loss >10%. PN was found to be needed in only 35% of consolidation courses, compared with 80% during remission induction and 55% during BMT. Significant differences were also seen between BMT protocols: PN was required in only 37% of autologous BMT recipients conditioned without total body irradiation (for lymphoma) vs 92% of recipients of a mismatched graft. A high body mass index was the only significant characteristic of patients who could do without PN. In conclusion, PN is not required for all patients undergoing intensive cytotoxic therapy. Screening of nutritional status at the start of therapy and monitoring oral intake following cytotoxic treatment may allow more appropriate identification of patients requiring PN. (+info
Parenteral vitamin requirements during intravenous feeding.
Serum vitamin levels of 40 patients undergoing parenteral nutrition over a 5-to 42-day period were studied while the subjects received daily water-soluble and once weekly fat soluble vitamin formulations intravenously. Initial serum deficiencies of vitamins A, C, and folate were noted in a large portion of the severely malnourished population. At the replacement levels used in this study a small number of patients developed subnormal levels of vitamins A and D. Improvement in levels for vitamin C and folate were noted for most patients. Vitamin B12 deficiencies were not noted in any patient. Currently available commercial vitamin preparations can be used with safety in the parenterally nourished population and recommended guidelines for weekly infusion of both water and fat soluble vitamins are presented. (+info