Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses.
Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals. (+info)
Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial assay using simultaneous culture of HEp-2, LLC-MK2, and MDCK cells in a single vial.
A shell vial assay with simultaneous culture of HEp-2, LLC-MK2, and MDCK cell lines in a single tube (CoHLM SV assay) was compared with traditional tube culture (TC) for the detection of the main respiratory viruses in 358 nasal wash specimens. A total of 170 strains were isolated from 168 virus-positive samples. A total of 94. 1% of the strains (160 strains; 128 respiratory syncytial viruses and 32 other viruses) were detected by the CoHLM SV assay in 48 h, whereas 98.2% of the strains (167 strains; 132 respiratory syncytial viruses and 35 other viruses) were detected by TC in a mean time of 6 days. The CoHLM SV assay may be useful for the rapid detection of respiratory viruses. (+info)
Molecular evolution of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae multiple-protein-encoding P gene.
Presented here is an analysis of the molecular evolutionary dynamics of the P gene among 76 representative sequences of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae RNA virus families. In a number of Paramyxoviridae taxa, as well as in vesicular stomatitis viruses of the Rhabdoviridae, the P gene encodes multiple proteins from a single genomic RNA sequence. These products include the phosphoprotein (P), as well as the C and V proteins. The complexity of the P gene makes it an intriguing locus to study from an evolutionary perspective. Amino acid sequence alignments of the proteins encoded at the P and N loci were used in independent phylogenetic reconstructions of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae families. P-gene-coding capacities were mapped onto the Paramyxoviridae phylogeny, and the most parsimonious path of multiple-coding-capacity evolution was determined. Levels of amino acid variation for Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae P-gene-encoded products were also analyzed. Proteins encoded in overlapping reading frames from the same nucleotides have different levels of amino acid variation. The nucleotide architecture that underlies the amino acid variation was determined in order to evaluate the role of selection in the evolution of the P gene overlapping reading frames. In every case, the evolution of one of the proteins encoded in the overlapping reading frames has been constrained by negative selection while the other has evolved more rapidly. The integrity of the overlapping reading frame that represents a derived state is generally maintained at the expense of the ancestral reading frame encoded by the same nucleotides. The evolution of such multicoding sequences is likely a response by RNA viruses to selective pressure to maximize genomic information content while maintaining small genome size. The ability to evolve such a complex genomic strategy is intimately related to the dynamics of the viral quasispecies, which allow enhanced exploration of the adaptive landscape. (+info)
Determination of the disulfide bond arrangement of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin neuraminidase. Correlation with a beta-sheet propeller structural fold predicted for paramyxoviridae attachment proteins.
Disulfide bonds stabilize the structure and functions of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase attachment glycoprotein (HN) of Newcastle disease virus. Until this study, the disulfide linkages of this HN and structurally similar attachment proteins of other members of the paramyxoviridae family were undefined. To define these linkages, disulfide-linked peptides were produced by peptic digestion of purified HN ectodomains of the Queensland strain of Newcastle disease virus, isolated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Analysis of peptides containing a single disulfide bond revealed Cys(531)-Cys(542) and Cys(172)-Cys(196) linkages and that HN ectodomains dimerize via Cys(123). Another peptide, with a chain containing Cys(186) linked to a chain containing Cys(238), Cys(247), and Cys(251), was cleaved at Met(249) with cyanogen bromide. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometry established Cys(186)-Cys(247) and Cys(238)-Cys(251) linkages. A glycopeptide with a chain containing Cys(344) linked to a chain containing Cys(455), Cys(461), and Cys(465) was treated sequentially with peptide-N-glycosidase F and trypsin. Further treatment of this peptide by one round of manual Edman degradation or tandem mass spectrometry established Cys(344)-Cys(461) and Cys(455)-Cys(465) linkages. These data, establishing the disulfide linkages of all thirteen cysteines of this protein, are consistent with published predictions that the paramyxoviridae HN forms a beta-propeller structural fold. (+info)
Paramyxoviridae use distinct virus-specific mechanisms to circumvent the interferon response.
STAT1 and STAT2 are cellular transcription factors involved in interferon (IFN) signaling and are thus critical for the IFN-induced antiviral state. We have previously shown that the paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5 (SV5) blocks both type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling by targeting STAT1 for proteasome-mediated degradation. To determine whether this is a feature common to all Paramyxoviridae, we examined the abilities of SV5, Sendai virus (SeV), human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human parainfluenza viruses types 2 and 3 (hPIV2 and hPIV3, respectively) to block interferon signaling. The results showed that in reporter assays SV5, SeV, and hPIV3 blocked both type I and type II IFN-signaling; hPIV2 blocked type I but not type II IFN-signaling; and RSV failed to block either type I or type II IFN-signaling. In agreement with these results, SV5 and SeV inhibited the formation of the ISGF3 and GAF transcription complexes (essential for type I and type II signaling, respectively). Surprisingly, although hPIV3 inhibited IFN-induction of the ISGF3 complex, GAF complexes were detected in hPIV3-infected cells. hPIV2 also blocked the formation of the ISGF3 complex but not the GAF complex, whereas RSV failed to block the induction of either complex. SV5 was the only virus that caused the degradation of STAT1. Indeed, in SeV- and hPIV3-infected cells STAT1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 701 (Y701), a characteristic of IFN receptor activation. However, consistent with these viruses blocking IFN signaling downstream of receptor activation, there was a specific reduction in the levels of serine 727 (S727)-phosphorylated forms of STAT1alpha in SeV- and hPIV3-infected cells. In contrast both (Y701)- and (S727)-phosphorylated forms of STAT1 were detected in hPIV2-infected cells but there was a specific loss of STAT2. Both STAT1 (including Y701- and S727-phosphorylated forms) and STAT2 could readily be detected in RSV-infected cells. Despite not being able to block type I or type II IFN signaling, RSV was able to replicate in human cells that produce and respond to IFN, suggesting that RSV must have an alternative method(s) for circumventing the IFN response. These results demonstrate that, although interference with IFN signaling is a common strategy among Paramyxovirinae, distinct virus-specific mechanisms are used to achieve this end. (+info)
The exceptionally large genome of Hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia, in September 1994 resulted in the deaths of 14 racing horses and a horse trainer. The causative agent was a new member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus was originally called Equine morbillivirus but was renamed Hendra virus (HeV) when molecular characterization highlighted differences between it and members of the genus Morbillivirus. Less than 5 years later, the closely related Nipah virus (NiV) emerged in Malaysia, spread rapidly through the pig population, and caused the deaths of over 100 people. We report the characterization of the HeV L gene and protein, the genome termini, and gene boundary sequences, thus completing the HeV genome sequence. In the highly conserved region of the L protein, the HeV sequence GDNE differs from the GDNQ found in almost all other nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses. HeV has an absolutely conserved intergenic trinucleotide sequence, 3'-GAA-5', and highly conserved transcription initiation and termination sequences similar to those of respiroviruses and morbilliviruses. The large genome size (18,234 nucleotides), the unique complementary genome terminal sequences of HeV, and the limited homology with other members of the Paramyxoviridae suggest that HeV, together with NiV, should be classified in a new genus in this family. The large genome of HeV also fills a gap in the spectrum of genome sizes observed with NNS RNA virus genomes. As such, it provides a further piece in the puzzle of NNS RNA virus evolution. (+info)
Recovery of infectious proviral DNA from mammalian cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.
The DNA fraction from a line of bovine embryonic kidney cells originally exposed as primary cultures several months earlier to a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus could be used to transfect human HEp-2 cells with the production of infectious RS virus. The DNA donor cells, designated BEK/RS ts, retained their healthy fibroblastic appearance during continuous cultivation at a temperature (39 degrees) restrictive for growth of the original infecting mutant and showed no evidence for RS virus replication or viral antigen synthesis when directly examined for these activities by conventional methods. The infectious property of the DNA from BEK/RS ts cells was abolished by exposure of the nucleic acid preparation to DNase (but not RNase) or by pretreatment of recipient HEp-2 cells with actinomycin D or mitomycin C. The latter drug treatments substantially enhanced the replication of infecting wild-type RS virus in HEp-2 cells. Viral isolates derived from the progeny of a DNA transfection included clones possessing several genetic markers of the RS ts mutant originally used to infect BEK/RS ts cells and other virus clones that appeared to be either hybrid or wild-type for phenotypic properties such as their temperature sensitivity. An infectious proviral DNA was also detected in a line of virogenic HEp-2 cells (HEp-2/RS) persistently infected with respiratory syncytial virus after exposure to the wild-type strain 2 years earlier. (+info)
Paramyxovirus-avian cell relationship: discrepant impact of 6-azauridine on virus production by susceptible and less susceptible cells.
The replication of mumps virus in susceptible chicken embryonic heart cells was escalated by daily treatment of cultures with 6-azauridine (6-AU). On the other hand, virus production by less susceptible liver cells was depressed by 6-AU. The population of infected susceptible cells was not increased, but the release of virus by infected susceptible cells was enhanced 20-fold by 10 mug of 6-AU per ml. Less susceptible cells, which incorporated less ribonucleic acid and protein precursor than susceptible cells, sustained a constant level of viral release during 6-AU treatment; however, the number of infected less susceptible cells underwent substantial decline. (+info)