Impairment of skeletal muscle adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is the most abundant K+ channel active in the skeletal muscle fibers of humans and animals. In the present work, we demonstrate the involvement of the muscular KATP channel in a skeletal muscle disorder known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOPP), which is caused by mutations of the dihydropyridine receptor of the Ca2+ channel. Muscle biopsies excised from three patients with HOPP carrying the R528H mutation of the dihydropyridine receptor showed a reduced sarcolemma KATP current that was not stimulated by magnesium adenosine diphosphate (MgADP; 50-100 microM) and was partially restored by cromakalim. In contrast, large KATP currents stimulated by MgADP were recorded in the healthy subjects. At channel level, an abnormal KATP channel showing several subconductance states was detected in the patients with HOPP. None of these were surveyed in the healthy subjects. Transitions of the KATP channel between subconductance states were also observed after in vitro incubation of the rat muscle with low-K+ solution. The lack of the sarcolemma KATP current observed in these patients explains the symptoms of the disease, i.e., hypokalemia, depolarization of the fibers, and possibly the paralysis following insulin administration. (+info)
Activation and inactivation of the voltage-gated sodium channel: role of segment S5 revealed by a novel hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis mutation.
Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita, and potassium-aggravated myotonia are three autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorders linked to the SCN4A gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the human voltage-sensitive sodium channel. To date, approximately 20 point mutations causing these disorders have been described. We have identified a new point mutation, in the SCN4A gene, in a family with a hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis phenotype. This mutation predicts an isoleucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at position 1495 located in the transmembrane segment S5 in the fourth homologous domain of the human alpha-subunit sodium channel. Introduction of the I1495F mutation into the wild-type channels disrupted the macroscopic current inactivation decay and shifted both steady-state activation and inactivation to the hyperpolarizing direction. The recovery from fast inactivation was slowed, and there was no effect on channel deactivation. Additionally, a significant enhancement of slow inactivation was observed in the I1495F mutation. In contrast, the T704M mutation, a hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis mutation located in the cytoplasmic interface of the S5 segment of the second domain, also shifted activation in the hyperpolarizing direction but had little effect on fast inactivation and dramatically impaired slow inactivation. These results, showing that the I1495F and T704M hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis mutations both have profound effects on channel activation and fast-slow inactivation, suggest that the S5 segment maybe in a location where fast and slow inactivation converge. (+info)
A novel syndrome of episodic muscle weakness maps to xp22.3.
We describe a family with a novel disorder characterized by episodic muscle weakness and X-linked inheritance. Eight males in three generations demonstrate the characteristic features of the disorder. Episodes of severe muscle weakness are typically precipitated by febrile illness and affect the facial and extraocular musculature, as well as the trunk and limbs, and resolve spontaneously over a period of weeks to months. Younger members of the family are normal between episodes but during relapses show generalized weakness, ptosis, and fluctuations in strength. In some cases, fatigability can be demonstrated. The proband has late-onset chronic weakness and fatigability. The clinical phenotype has features suggestive both of the congenital myasthenic syndromes and of ion-channel disorders such as the periodic paralyses. We have localized the responsible gene to chromosome Xp22.3, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4. 52 at a recombination fraction of.0, between OACA2 and DXS9985. (+info)
Spectrum of sodium channel disturbances in the nondystrophic myotonias and periodic paralyses.
Several heritable forms of myotonia and periodic paralysis are caused by missense mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of skeletal muscle. Mutations produce gain-of-function defects, either disrupted inactivation or enhanced activation. Both defects result in too much inward Na current which may either initiate pathologic bursts of action potentials (myotonia) or cause flaccid paralysis by depolarizing fibers to a refractory inexcitable state. Myotonic stiffness and periodic paralysis occur as paroxysmal attacks often triggered by environmental factors such as serum K+, cold, or exercise. Many gaps remain in our understanding of the interactions between genetic predisposition and these environmental influences. Targeted gene manipulation in animals may provide the tools to fill in these gaps. (+info)
A double mutation in families with periodic paralysis defines new aspects of sodium channel slow inactivation.
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder caused by single mutations in the SCN4A gene, encoding the human skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channel. We have now identified one allele with two novel mutations occurring simultaneously in the SCN4A gene. These mutations are found in two distinct families that had symptoms of periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. The two nucleotide transitions predict phenylalanine 1490-->leucine and methionine 1493-->isoleucine changes located in the transmembrane segment S5 in the fourth repeat of the alpha-subunit Na(+) channel. Surprisingly, this mutation did not affect fast inactivation parameters. The only defect produced by the double mutant (F1490L-M1493I, expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells) is an enhancement of slow inactivation, a unique behavior not seen in the 24 other disease-causing mutations. The behavior observed in these mutant channels demonstrates that manifestation of HyperKPP does not necessarily require disruption of slow inactivation. Our findings may also shed light on the molecular determinants and mechanism of Na(+) channel slow inactivation and help clarify the relationship between Na(+) channel defects and the long-term paralytic attacks experienced by patients with HyperKPP. (+info)
MiRP2 forms potassium channels in skeletal muscle with Kv3.4 and is associated with periodic paralysis.
The subthreshold, voltage-gated potassium channel of skeletal muscle is shown to contain MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2) and the pore-forming subunit Kv3.4. MiRP2-Kv3.4 channels differ from Kv3.4 channels in unitary conductance, voltage-dependent activation, recovery from inactivation, steady-state open probability, and block by a peptide toxin. Thus, MiRP2-Kv3.4 channels set resting membrane potential (RMP) and do not produce afterhyperpolarization or cumulative inactivation to limit action potential frequency. A missense mutation is identified in the gene for MiRP2 (KCNE3) in two families with periodic paralysis and found to segregate with the disease. Mutant MiRP2-Kv3.4 complexes exhibit reduced current density and diminished capacity to set RMP. Thus, MiRP2 operates with a classical potassium channel subunit to govern skeletal muscle function and pathophysiology. (+info)
Mutations in Kir2.1 cause the developmental and episodic electrical phenotypes of Andersen's syndrome.
Andersen's syndrome is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. We have mapped an Andersen's locus to chromosome 17q23 near the inward rectifying potassium channel gene KCNJ2. A missense mutation in KCNJ2 (encoding D71V) was identified in the linked family. Eight additional mutations were identified in unrelated patients. Expression of two of these mutations in Xenopus oocytes revealed loss of function and a dominant negative effect in Kir2.1 current as assayed by voltage-clamp. We conclude that mutations in Kir2.1 cause Andersen's syndrome. These findings suggest that Kir2.1 plays an important role in developmental signaling in addition to its previously recognized function in controlling cell excitability in skeletal muscle and heart. (+info)
Channelopathies: Kir2.1 mutations jeopardize many cell functions.
Andersen's syndrome is caused by mutations in the potassium channel Kir2.1, a major determinant of resting membrane potential. The clinical features of this disease illustrate the importance of a stable resting membrane potential for many cell functions. (+info)