Human parainfluenza virus type 1 phosphoprotein is constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-120 and Ser-184.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses comprise a phosphoprotein (P) and a large protein. The constitutive phosphorylation of the P protein in these viruses is highly conserved, yet the functional significance of phosphorylation is enigmatic. To approach this problem, phosphorylation sites were determined in two closely related paramyxovirus P proteins. Sendai virus (SV) is a prototypic paramyxovirus. Previously, using a phosphopeptide mapping technique, the primary constitutive phosphorylation site of SV P protein was mapped to Ser-249. Phosphorylation at Ser-249 is dependent on the presence of Pro-250. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) P protein has 66% similarity to SV P protein and its predicted secondary structure is highly similar to that of SV P protein. However, there is no obvious conserved phosphorylation site in HPIV-1 P protein. Using the phosphopeptide mapping strategy, the constitutive phosphorylation sites of HPIV-1 P protein were mapped. The HPIV-1 P protein is primarily phosphorylated at Ser-120. Phosphorylation at Ser-120 is dependent on the presence of Pro-121. It also has a minor phosphorylation site at Ser-184. The sequence at Ser-184 does not match any consensus phosphorylation target site for the known kinases. Significantly, the P proteins from both viruses are constitutively and primarily phosphorylated at one serine and the phosphorylation of that serine is dependent on the presence of a proline on its carboxyl side. (+info)
Human parainfluenza virus type 1 matrix and nucleoprotein genes transiently expressed in mammalian cells induce the release of virus-like particles containing nucleocapsid-like structures.
The matrix (M) protein plays an essential role in the assembly and budding of some enveloped RNA viruses. We expressed the human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) M and/or NP genes into 293T cells using the mammalian expression vector pCAGGS. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses of transfected cells showed that the M protein alone can induce the budding of virus-like particles (vesicles) from the plasma membrane and that the NP protein can assemble into intracellular nucleocapsid-like (NC-like) structures. Furthermore, the coexpression of both the M and NP genes resulted in the production of vesicles enclosing NC-like structures, suggesting that the hPIV-1 M protein has the intrinsic ability to induce membrane vesiculation and to incorporate NC-like structures into these budding vesicles. (+info)
Parainfluenza virus infection among adults hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection.
To better define the contribution of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) to lower respiratory tract infection in adults, we tested acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens from hospitalized adults participating in a population-based prospective study of lower respiratory tract infection during 1991-1992. We tested all available specimens from the epidemic seasons for each virus and approximately 300 randomly selected specimens from the corresponding off-seasons for antibodies to HPIV-1, HPIV-2, or HPIV-3. During the respective epidemic season, HPIV-1 infection was detected in 18 (2.5%) of 721 and HPIV-3 infection in 22 (3.1%) of 705 patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Only 2 (0.2%) of 1,057 patients tested positive for HPIV-2 infection. No HPIV-1 infections and only 2 (0.7% of 281 patients tested) HPIV-3 infections were detected during the off-seasons. HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 were among the four most frequently identified infections associated with lower respiratory tract infection during their respective outbreak seasons. (+info)
Respiratory viral antigens in autopsy lung tissue specimens from patients with cancer or myocardial infarction.
Using immunoenzyme histochemical analysis, we retrospectively examined lung tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 118 patients with cancer who had received chemotherapy and 20 patients who had died after myocardial infarction. Respiratory viral antigens were demonstrated in lung tissue specimens from eight of 118 cancer patients and two of 20 myocardial infarction patients. Most of the patients with demonstrable viral antigens were febrile and had signs of pulmonary infection, but in no case was pulmonary viral infection considered clinically. The following viral antigens were demonstrated: influenza A virus (6 patients), respiratory syncytial virus (2), influenza B virus (1), and parainfluenza virus type 1 (1). (+info)
Clinical characteristics of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in Seoul, 1996-1998.
This study was performed to investigate the etiologic agents, age distribution, clinical manifestations and seasonal occurrence of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. We confirmed viral etiologies using nasopharyngeal aspirates in 237 patients of the ages of 15 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) from March 1996 to February 1998 at Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The overall isolation rate was 22.1%. The viral pathogens identified were adenovirus (12.7%), influenza virus type A (21.1%), -type B (13.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (13.5%), -type 2 (1.3%), -type 3 (16.0%) and respiratory syncytial virus (21.5%). The occurrence of ALRIs was highest in the first year of life, although parainfluenza virus type 1 infection occurred predominantly in the second year of life and influenza virus caused illnesses in all age groups. The specific viruses are frequently associated with specific clinical syndromes of ALRI. The respiratory agents and associated syndromes frequently have characteristic seasonal patterns. This study will help us to estimate the etiologic agents of ALRI, and establish a program for the prevention and treatment. An annual nationwide survey is necessary to understand the viral epidemiology associated with respiratory illnesses in Korea. (+info)
Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR.
We describe a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (m-RT-PCR) assay that is able to detect and differentiate all known human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). Serial dilution experiments with reference strains that compared cell culture isolation and m-RT-PCR showed sensitivities ranging from 0.0004 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) for HPIV type 4B (HPIV-4B) to 32 TCID(50)s for HPIV-3. As few as 10 plasmids containing HPIV PCR products could be detected in all cases. When 201 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from pediatric patients hospitalized for lower respiratory illness were tested, m-RT-PCR assay detected 64 HPIVs (24 HPIV-3, 23 HPIV-1, 10 HPIV-4, and 7 HPIV-2), while only 42 of them (21 HPIV-1, 14 HPIV-3, 6 HPIV-2, and 1 HPIV-4 isolates) grew in cell culture. Our m-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than either cell culture isolation or indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for the detection of HPIV infections. Also, HPIV-4 was more frequently detected than HPIV-2 in this study, suggesting that it may have been underestimated as a lower respiratory tract pathogen because of the insensitivity of cell culture. (+info)
Mutations in conserved domains IV and VI of the large (L) subunit of the sendai virus RNA polymerase give a spectrum of defective RNA synthesis phenotypes.
The Sendai virus RNA polymerase is a complex of two virus-encoded proteins, the phosphoprotein (P) and the large (L) protein. When aligned with amino acid sequences of L proteins from other negative-sense RNA viruses, the Sendai L protein contains six regions of good conservation, designated domains I-VI, which have been postulated to be important for the various enzymatic activities of the polymerase. To directly address the roles of domains IV and VI, 14 site-directed mutations were constructed either by changing clustered charged amino acids to ala or by substituting selected Sendai L amino acids with the corresponding sequence from measles virus L. Each mutant L protein was tested for its ability to transcribe and replicate the Sendai genome. The series of mutations created a spectrum of phenotypes, from those with significant, near wild-type, activity to those being completely defective for all RNA synthesis. The inactive L proteins, however, were still able to bind P protein and form a polymerase capable of binding the nucleocapsid template. The remainder of the mutations reduced, but did not abolish, enzymatic activity and included one mutant with a specific defect in the synthesis of the leader RNA compared with mRNA, and three mutants that replicated genome RNA much more efficiently in vivo than in vitro. Together, these data suggest that even within a domain, the function of the Sendai L protein is likely to be very complex. In addition, SS3 and SS10 L in domain IV and SS13 L in domain VI were shown to be temperature-sensitive. Both SS3 and SS10 gave significant, although not wild-type, activity at 32 degrees C; however, each was completely inactivated for all RNA synthesis at 37 and 39.6 degrees C. SS13 was completely inactive only when synthesized at the higher temperature. Each polymerase synthesized at 32 degrees C could only be partially heat inactivated in vitro at 39.6 degrees C, suggesting that inactivation involves both thermal lability of the protein and temperature sensitivity for its synthesis. (+info)
Nucleocapsid incorporation into parainfluenza virus is regulated by specific interaction with matrix protein.
The paramyxovirus nucleoproteins (NPs) encapsidate the genomic RNA into nucleocapsids, which are then incorporated into virus particles. We determined the protein-protein interaction between NP molecules and the molecular mechanism required for incorporating nucleocapsids into virions in two closely related viruses, human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SV). Expression of NP from cDNA resulted in in vivo nucleocapsid formation. Electron micrographs showed no significant difference in the morphological appearance of viral nucleocapsids obtained from lysates of transfected cells expressing SV or hPIVI NP cDNA. Coexpression of NP cDNAs from both viruses resulted in the formation of nucleocapsid composed of a mixture of NP molecules; thus, the NPs of both viruses contained regions that allowed the formation of mixed nucleocapsid. Mixed nucleocapsids were also detected in cells infected with SV and transfected with hPIV1 NP cDNA. However, when NP of SV was donated by infected virus and hPIV1 NP was from transfected cDNA, nucleocapsids composed of NPs solely from SV or solely from hPIVI were also detected. Although almost equal amounts of NP of the two viruses were found in the cytoplasm of cells infected with SV and transfected with hPIV1 NP cDNA, 90% of the NPs in the nucleocapsids of the progeny SV virions were from SV. Thus, nucleocapsids containing heterologous hPIV1 NPs were excluded during the assembly of progeny SV virions. Coexpression of hPIV1 NP and hPIV1 matrix protein (M) in SV-infected cells increased the uptake of nucleocapsids containing hPIV1 NP; thus, M appears to be responsible for the specific incorporation of the nucleocapsid into virions. Using SV-hPIV1 chimera NP cDNAs, we found that the C-terminal domain of the NP protein (amino acids 420 to 466) is responsible for the interaction with M. (+info)