Third International Meeting on von Hippel-Lindau disease.
Five years after the identification of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, physicians, scientists and concerned VHL family members met to review the current state of knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment of VHL and to summarize the latest information on the biochemistry of the VHL protein (pVHL). The NIH and University of Pennsylvania groups reported the detection of germ-line mutations in 100% (93 of 93) of VHL families studied. Several studies determined the frequency of VHL germ-line mutations in individuals with a single manifestation of VHL without a family history of VHL. National groups to improve the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with VHL disease have been established in Great Britain, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Evidence for the existence of genes that modify the expression of VHL was presented. The VHL protein appears to have several distinct functions: (a) down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs; (b) proper assembly of the extracellular fibronectin matrix; (c) regulation of exit from the cell cycle; and (d) regulation of expression of carbonic anhydrases 9 and 12. (+info)
Paraganglioma in the frontal skull base--case report.
A 56-year-old female presented with a paraganglioma in the left anterior cranial fossa who manifesting as persistent headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, enhanced tumor with a cystic component located medially. The tumor was attached to the left frontal base and the sphenoid ridge. Angiography demonstrated a hypervascular tumor fed mainly by the left middle meningeal artery at the left sphenoid ridge. The preoperative diagnosis was meningioma of the left frontal base. The tumor was totally resected via a left frontotemporal craniotomy. Histological examination revealed the characteristic cellular arrangement of paraganglioma generally designated as the "Zellbaren pattern" on light microscopy. Only 10 patients with supratentorial paraganglioma have been reported, seven located in the parasellar area. The origin of the present tumor may have been the paraganglionic cells which strayed along the middle meningeal artery at differentiation. (+info)
The antiangiogenic agent linomide inhibits the growth rate of von Hippel-Lindau paraganglioma xenografts to mice.
The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential usefulness of the antiangiogenic compound linomide for treatment of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-related tumors. Paraganglioma tissue fragments obtained at surgery from a VHL type 2a patient were transplanted s.c. to male BALB/c nu/nu (nude) mice: (a) 2-3-mm fragments for "prevention" experiments; and (b) 2-3-mm fragments allowed to grow to 1 cm for "intervention" studies. Both groups received either 0.5 mg/ml linomide in drinking water or acidified water and were followed until tumor diameter reached 3 cm or for 4 weeks. In both the prevention and intervention experiments, a significant diminution of tumor size and weight was observed in the drug-treated animals. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of tumor blood flow in linomide-treated animals showed localization of blood vessels almost exclusively to the periphery of the poorly vascularized tumors with a significant reduction of both vascular functionality and vasodilation. Histological examination of tumors from linomide-treated animals revealed marked avascularity. Treated animals also displayed a 2.4-fold reduction of tumor vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. Taken together, our data indicate that in VHL disease, therapy directed at inhibition of constitutively expressed VEGF induction of angiogenesis by VHL tumors may constitute an effective medical treatment. (+info)
Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma.
Hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) is characterized by the development of benign, vascularized tumors in the head and neck. The most common tumor site is the carotid body (CB), a chemoreceptive organ that senses oxygen levels in the blood. Analysis of families carrying the PGL1 gene, described here, revealed germ line mutations in the SDHD gene on chromosome 11q23. SDHD encodes a mitochondrial respiratory chain protein-the small subunit of cytochrome b in succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (cybS). In contrast to expectations based on the inheritance pattern of PGL, the SDHD gene showed no evidence of imprinting. These findings indicate that mitochondria play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain tumors and that cybS plays a role in normal CB physiology. (+info)
Comparative genomic hybridization reveals frequent losses of chromosomes 1p and 3q in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas, suggesting a common genetic etiology.
Pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas are rare, catecholamine-producing tumors that arise from the chromaffin cells derived from the neural crest. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to screen for copy number changes in 23 pheochromocytomas and 11 abdominal paragangliomas. The pattern of copy number changes was similar between pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, with the most consistent finding being loss of 1cen-p31, which was detected in 28/34 tumors (82%). Losses were also found on 3q22-25 (41%), 11p (26%), 3p13-14 (24%), 4q (21%), 2q (15%), and 11q22-23 (15%), and gains were detected on 19p (26%), 19q (24%), 17q24-qter (21%), 11cen-q13 (15%), and 16p (15%). Losses of 1p and 3q were detected in the majority of tumors, whereas gains of 19p and q, 17q, and 16p were seen only in tumors with six or more CGH alterations. This progression of genetic events did not correspond with the conversion to a malignant phenotype. CGH alterations involving chromosome 11 were more frequent in the malignant tumors, compared with the benign tumors (9/12 versus 3/16). In summary, we propose that pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas, which share many clinical features, also have a common genetic origin and that the loss of 1cen-p31 represents an early and important event in tumor development. (+info)
Vascularization of head and neck paragangliomas: comparison of three MR angiographic techniques with digital subtraction angiography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR angiography of the head and neck region has been studied widely, but few studies have been performed concerning the efficacy of MR angiography for the identification of the specific vascular supply of the highly vascular head and neck paragangliomas. In this study, we compared three MR angiography techniques with respect to visualization of branch arteries in the neck and identification of tumor feeders in patients with paragangliomas. METHODS: Fourteen patients with 29 paragangliomas were examined at 1.5 T using 3D phase-contrast (PC), 2D time-of-flight (2D TOF), and multi-slab 3D TOF MR angiography. In the first part of the study, two radiologists independently evaluated the visibility of first-, second-, and third-order branch arteries in the neck. In the second part of the study, the number of feeding arteries for every paraganglioma was determined and compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), the standard of reference in this study. RESULTS: Three-dimensional TOF angiography was superior to the other MR angiography techniques studied (P < .05) for depicting branch arteries of the external carotid artery in the neck, but only first- and second-order vessels were reliably shown. DSA showed a total of 78 feeding arteries in the group of patients with 29 paragangliomas, which was superior to what was revealed by all MR angiography techniques studied. More tumor feeders were identified with 3D TOF and 2D TOF angiography than with 3D PC MR angiography (P < .05), with a sensitivity/specificity of 61%/98%, 54%/95%, and 31%/95%, respectively. Sensitivity was lowest for carotid body tumors. CONCLUSION: Compared with intra-arterial DSA, the 3D TOF MR angiography technique was superior to 3D PC and 2D TOF MR angiography for identifying the first- and second-order vessels in the neck. With 3D TOF angiography, more tumor feeders were identified than with the other MR angiography techniques studied. The sensitivity of MR angiography, however, is not high enough to reveal important vascularization. The sensitivity of MR angiography is too low to replace DSA, especially in the presence of carotid body tumors. (+info)
Paraganglioma of cauda equina: a case report.
Histopathologically and immunologically confirmed case of paraganglioma of cauda equina region is described. (+info)
Somatic and occult germ-line mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in nonfamilial pheochromocytoma.
Most pheochromocytomas are sporadic but about 10% are though to be hereditary. Although the etiology of most inherited pheochromocytoma is well known, little is known about the etiology of the more common sporadic tumor. Recently, germ-line mutations of SDHD, a mitochondria complex II gene, were found in patients with hereditary paraganglioma. We sought to determine whether SDHD plays a role in the development of sporadic pheochromocytomas and performed a mutation and deletion analysis of SDHD. Among 18 samples, we identified 4 heterozygous sequence variants (3 germ-line, 1 somatic). One germ-line SDHD mutation IVS1+2T>G (absent among 78 control alleles) is predicted to cause aberrant splicing. On reinvestigation, this patient was found to have a tumor of the carotid body, which was likely a paraganglioma. Another patient with malignant, extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma was found to have germ-line c.34G> A (G12S). However, this sequence variant was also found in 1 of 78 control alleles. The third, germ-line nonsense mutation R38X was found in a patient with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The only somatic heterozygous mutation, c.242C>T (P81L), has been found in the germ line of two families with hereditary paraganglioma and is conserved among four eukaryotic multicellular organisms. Hence, this mutation is most likely of functional significance too. Overall, loss of heterozygosity in at least one of the two markers flanking SDHD was found in 13 tumors (72%). All of the tumors that already harbored intragenic SDHD mutations, whether germ-line or somatic, also had loss of heterozygosity. Our results indicate that SDHD plays a role in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. Given the minimum estimated germline SDHD mutation frequency of 11% (maximum estimate up to 17%) in this set of apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma cases and if these data can be replicated in other populations, our observations might suggest that all such patients be considered for SDHD mutation analysis. (+info)