Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans).
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima. (+info)
Diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by PCR using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
A previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (amplification of a 238-bp fragment of ovine herpesvirus 2 [OHV-2] genomic DNA) for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was adapted for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Variables affecting its use were examined. Archived tissues from cattle, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and bison (Bison bison) diagnosed with MCF by clinical signs or histologic lesions were obtained from 2 veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Tissues from healthy animals and from animals diagnosed with other common bovine viral diseases were examined as controls. A total of 86 blocks from 37 suspect MCF cases were examined. Forty-one blocks from healthy animals and animals with unrelated viral diseases were examined as controls. The assay was specific for sheep-associated MCF and did not yield false-positive signals from healthy animals or from cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea, mucosal disease, or parainfluenza-3 virus infection. A wide variety of tissues were suitable substrates, including spleen, lymph node, intestine, brain, lung, and kidney. Extracted DNA provided a more suitable target than did unextracted tissue lysate. The highest levels of viral DNA were present in lymphoid organs and intestine, but the data indicate that in acute clinical cases, most organs contain sufficient viral DNA to serve as a suitable diagnostic specimen. Fixation of 0.5-cm3 blocks of tissue in 10% neutral buffered formalin was deleterious to the target DNA, and PCR signals progressively diminished after fixation for >45 days. Detection of genomic DNA of OHV-2 by PCR was successful for archived tissues that were 15 years old. (+info)
Immunocytochemical detection of Candida albicans in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material.
AIM: To assess the ability of the commercially available monoclonal antibody 1B12 (BioGenex, San Ramon, USA) to identify C albicans in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded material (FFPE). METHODS: Broth cultures of 20 strains of seven Candida species were resuspended in 4% agarose blocks, fixed in formalin for 24 hours, and embedded in paraffin wax. In addition, 16 blocks of FFPE tissue known to contain periodic acid-Schiff positive fungal hyphae were examined. Antigen retrieval involved microwave treatment of specimens in citrate buffer (0.01 M; pH 6.5) before addition of 1B12 antibody for 24 hours. Bound antibody was subsequently detected using a biotinylated link antibody and a peroxidase conjugated streptavidin. RESULTS: Only C albicans strains were 1B12 positive in the agarose blocks. All FFPE tissue blocks were found to contain 1B12 positive hyphal structures, indicating the presence of C albicans. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify candida organisms penetrating the lesional tissue in cases of chronic hyperplastic candidosis will help to clarify the role of individual Candida spp in this important form of oral candidosis. (+info)
Detection of translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
To assess an unequivocal diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), we have developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, enabling the demonstration of t(11;14)(q13;q32) directly on pathological samples. We have first selected CCND1 and IGH probes encompassing the breakpoint regions on both chromosomes. Then, we have defined experimental conditions enabling us to obtain bright clear-cut signals in all of the samples, independently of the initial fixation conditions. We have analyzed single-cell suspensions from 26 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded MCL samples with this set of probes. In all cases, we have found a fusion signal (ie, a t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation) in 14% to 99% of cells (median, 87%). So far, IGH-CCND1 fusions have been detected in all of the 51 MCL patients that we have analyzed by FISH (either on paraffin-embedded tumor samples or on peripheral blood samples). Regarding the low sensitivity of other techniques used to diagnose t(11;14)(q13;q32) (ie, 70% to 75% for cytogenetics and 50% to 60% for polymerase chain reaction), our FISH assay is by far the most sensitive technique. Moreover, because of the quality of the fluorescent signals and the rapidity of the experiment, this technique is widely applicable, even in routine cytogenetics or pathology laboratories. As MCL patients are usually refractory to standard therapy, an unambiguous diagnosis is needed to propose adapted therapeutic strategies, and this highly sensitive assay may be of great value for accurate diagnosis in difficult cases. (+info)
Evidence for two candidate tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 9q in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder but no homozygous deletions in bladder tumour cell lines.
The most frequent genetic alterations in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder involve loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9p and 9q. The LOH on chromosome 9p most likely targets the CDKN2 locus, which is inactivated in about 50% of TCCs. Candidate genes that are the target for LOH on chromosome 9q have yet to be identified. To narrow the localization of one or more putative tumour suppressor genes on this chromosome that play a role in TCC of the bladder, we examined 59 tumours with a panel of microsatellite markers along the chromosome. LOH was observed in 26 (44%) tumours. We present evidence for two different loci on the long arm of chromosome 9 where potential tumour suppressor genes are expected. These loci are delineated by interstitial deletions in two bladder tumours. Our results confirm the results of others and contribute to a further reduction of the size of these regions, which we called TCC1 and TCC2. These regions were examined for homozygous deletions with EST and STS markers. No homozygous deletions were observed in 17 different bladder tumour cell lines. (+info)
Labeled carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies excitable by infrared rays: a novel diagnostic method for micro cancers in the digestive tract.
OBJECT: An indocyanine green derivative (ICG-sulfo-OSu) was used as the labeling substance for monoclonal antibody, and a fluorescence imaging system appropriate for ICG-sulfo-OSu excitable by infrared rays (IR) was developed. The goal of this study was to demonstrate antibody labeling at the tissue level using this new imaging system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICG-sulfo-OSu labeled mouse anti-human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, a newly developed imaging system, and an infrared ray microscope were employed in this experiment. Paraffin sections of human colon cancer previously proven to have cross-reactivity to anti-CEA antibody were examined. RESULTS: Positive staining was seen as a brownish discoloration of oxidized 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) in sections that reacted with ICG-sulfo-OSu-labeled anti-CEA antibody, and the fluorescence was well-matched with the oxidized DAB-positive sites. CONCLUSION: Specific antibodies labeled with ICG-sulfo-OSu have significant affinity to cancer cells and seem to reflect sufficient amounts of fluorescence by IR to be useful in a system for the endoscopic detection of micro cancers using the immunohistochemical staining method. (+info)
Optimisation of DNA and RNA extraction from archival formalin-fixed tissue.
Archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is an invaluable resource for molecular genetic studies but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic. We have optimised DNA extraction by comparing 10 protocols, including a commercially available kit and a novel method that utilises a thermal cycler. The thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction method yielded DNA capable of amplification by PCR from every block and 61% of sections versus 54% using microwave and Chelex-100, 15% with classical xylene-based extraction and 60% of sections using the kit. Successful RNA extraction was observed, by beta-actin amplification, in 83.7% sections for samples treated by the thermal cycler and Chelex-100 method. Thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction of nucleic acid is reliable, quick and inexpensive. (+info)
Detection of clonal B cells in microdissected reactive lymphoproliferations: possible diagnostic pitfalls in PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement.
AIMS: To evaluate the specificity of standard and fluorescence based (Genescan) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement analysis in complete and microdissected paraffin wax embedded sections from lymphoid proliferations. METHODS: PCR IgH gene rearrangement analysis of whole sections and microdissected fragments (n = 62) from paraffin wax embedded reactive lymph nodes (n = 6) and tonsils (n = 3). Amplificant analysis used both standard methods and automated high resolution fluorescence based quantification and size determination using GENESCAN software. RESULTS: Whole tissue sections were consistently polyclonal in control experiments. IgH gene amplification was successful in 59 of 62 microdissected fragments; only two of 59 showed a polyclonal rearrangement pattern, the remainder being oligoclonal or monoclonal. Reanalysis was possible in 33 samples; six showed reproducible bands on gel analysis and satisfied accepted criteria for monoclonality. Use of high resolution gels with Genescan analysis improved sensitivity and band definition; however, three samples still appeared to be monoclonal. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that PCR based IgH gene rearrangement analysis is a sensitive and specific method for demonstrating B cell clonality in whole paraffin wax embedded sections. However, oligoclonal and monoclonal rearrangement patterns are regularly encountered in small tissue fragments from otherwise unremarkable reactive lymphoproliferations, possibly because of preferential priming or detection of local B cell clones. Data from clonal analysis of small, microdissected or lymphocyte poor samples must be evaluated critically. It is recommended that analyses should be run in parallel on at least two tissue specimens. Only reproducible bands present in more than one sample should be considered to be suggestive of neoplasia. (+info)